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Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider. , posted on May 6, 2015 . This is my recommended method of finding North using only the Sun, the approximate date in the year and your bare hands !

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Finding North by stars for beginners

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #finding North, #by stars, #star disk, #star map, #Mercator ,

Finding North by stars for beginners.

Beginners only need to know few stars to practice finding North by stars.

1. Common viewing instructions for all beginners.

1. From the following three maps select and print the one suitable for your zone.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Figure: Sky map (Inversion type) of the Northern Celestial 3/4-sphere showing only 20 brightest stars and some constellations. 24hr of R.A. is on the top and R.A. increases in the clockwise direction.

Sky map Southern 3/4 sphere

Figure: Sky map (Inversion type) of the Southern Celestial 3/4-sphere showing only 20 brightest stars and some constellations. 24hr of R.A. is on the top and R.A. increases in the clockwise direction.

 

star map mercatorFigure : The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top.  24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map.

 

2. Use a shadow stick or a compass to find out the (true) North direction at your location.

shadow stick to tell time and find North

Figure: A shadow stick for finding North and time is drawn here in blue colour. The shadow of its tip always move WEST TO EAST along a conical curve C (drawn in red). The axis of symmetry of the curve C is the terrestrial North-South direction.

3. Find out the latitude of your location.

4. Find out the current date in the calendar year.

5. Use the following simplified instructions to identify the stars at mid-nights.

 

2. Viewing instructions for inhabitants of Polar and Temperate Zones.

1. Place one of your straightened arm horizontally, pointing to North if you are in Northern hemisphere and South if in Southern hemisphere.

2. Raise your straightened arm by an angle equal to your latitude. Your straightened arm now points to the Celestial pole at your location.

3. Hold the circular star map on the hand of that arm, with its axis pointing to the Celestial pole and the MARKING FOR CURRENT MONTH ON ITS RIM AT ITS BOTTOM.

4. You can now see the images of stars on the map pointing to the actual stars.

sky disk alignment

Figure: Aligning the center of the paper star disk to the Celestial pole in the sky to identify the stars at midnight.




5. Beginners only need to recognize the circumpolar stars for their own hemisphere.

Inhabitants of Northern hemisphere need only to identify Little Dipper, Big Dipper (11hr R.A., 60° latitude) and Cassiopeia (1hr R.A., 60° latitude).

Inhabitants of Southern hemisphere need only to identify Agena, Alpha Centauri (pointer stars) and Acherna in the anticlockwise direction (all at latitude 60° South).

6. The knowledge of other stars will follow naturally with time.

 

Bright Stars 20 Plus 2

Figure 2: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.

3. Viewing instructions for inhabitants of Tropical Zone.

 

1. Hold the Mercator star map above your head, with North direction pointing to true North.

2. The length of the map corresponds to 19 months. Select and view only 6 month centered on the CURRENT MONTH. The line for the current month is worked out from the markings along sux of the vertical lines of this Mercator map.

3. You can now see the images of stars on the map pointing to the actual stars.

4. Beginners only need to recognize some bright stars near to the Celestial equator:  Orion Rigel. Betelgeue, Procyon, Spica, Boote Arcturus, Altair. They are associated with various different months of the year.

5. The knowledge of other stars will follow naturally with time.

 

4. Common Identifying instructions.

1. Beginners should observe the identified stars in subsequent night as well as at various different time.

2. The circumpolar stars will remain visible all year round for cold temporate zones. Beginners only need to know them well.

3. The tropical stars appear in sequences and tropical inhabitants have to associate tropical stars with their months in the year.

 4. Tropical constellations are seen upright from Northern Hemisphere and upside down from Southern Hemisphere

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Shadow-stick-navigation-and-graph-of-solar-paths, posted on August 19, 2016.

[2]. wiki, Astronomical_ceiling_of_Senemut_Tomb.

[3]. Suchow map, http://www.adlerplanetarium.org/exhibits/planetary-machines.

[4]. wiki, Chinese_star_maps

[5]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider, survivaltricks.wordpress.com , Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015.

[6]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015.

[7]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

[8]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, posted on May 19, 2015 .

DirectionBySun_12N .

RELATED SURVIVAL blogs

Shadow stick navigation and graph of solar paths, posted August 19, 2016

Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015. <<<—This is my MOST USEFUL novel technique.

wpid-dividermwp3e2c2.jpg

find North by the Sun

Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

, posted July 22, 2016

NorthByKnownStar

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Time keeping without using watches

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #find time, #finding time, #time keeping, #shadow stick, #star disk, #aiming rod, #equatorial mount, #sundial, #true North.

Time keeping without using watches.

Whenever an expedition camp is set up there is always a need for time keeping in the camp. Time keeping is required to get everyone back to base at the same time for meals or for camp activities. In the Eastern World, people had practiced reasonably accurate time keeping WITHOUT USING WATCHES since more than 2000 years ago. Their technique has been fairly accurate and is explained  here so that it can be appreciated and be useful to modern campers when separated from their watches.

1. The vertical shadow stick for finding time and finding North.

In the old time in Eastern World, each castle has a time keeper. It is interesting to learn the tricks of such a timekeeper. His main instrument is the vertical shadow stick the operation of which is described here

shadow stick to tell time and find North

Figure: A shadow stick for finding North and time is drawn here in blue colour. The shadow of its tip always move WEST TO EAST along a conical curve C (drawn in red). The shadow of the whole stick is a straight line joining its base to the shadow of its tip on the curve C. The axis of symmetry of the curve C is the terrestrial North-South direction.

A. The timekeeper/navigator first sets up a rigid vertical rod firmly buried in a level ground. The movement of the shadow of its tip gives time as well as directional information. That is it tells both time and the North-South direction.

B. He then draws many concentric circles on the level ground around the base of the stick. He then marks the position of the shadow of the tip on the ground, joining them to make a curve (which can be shown by geometry to be a “conical curve”). The symmetry axis of this curve is the true North-South direction at the location and the point on the curve closest to the base of the vertical stick corresponds to Local Noon (which differs significantly from Zonal Noon due to difference in Longitude and the variable speed of the Sun on the Celestial Sphere, the effect of the latter is known as the effect of the Time Equation). The shadow of the tip always moves WEST TO EAST and does so accurately near to NOON. Near to noon the shadow of the tip moves Eastwards by a distance of 1/4 of its distance to the tip every hour.

The timekeeper/navigator gives daily instructions to camp inhabitants on the time to come back to camp for meals/activities. The time for coming back is selected by his predetermined ratio of the length of the vertical stick to that of its shadow. When leaving the base camp, each inhabitant  has to make his own portable vertical stick to keep track of the approaching time for returning to base.

C. The vertical stick has a drawback that is the shadow of its tip travels at non-constant speed on a curve that changes slowly during the year.
One example of the disadvantages of the vertical shadow stick is that it cannot help dividing daylight duration into six intervals of equal duration for guard duties.

D. Equal intervals of time are determined from burning incense sticks, reciting prayers, filling containers with dripping water, boiling water pots, etc… Near to noon the shadow of the tip moves Eastwards by a distance of 1/4 of its distance to the tip every hour (During one hour the Sun moves along an arc which is nearly 15 degrees long and sin 15° is nearly 1/4.).

2. Star disk for time keeping at night.

Time keeping at night can be carried out accurately using the stars.

Any star gazer (ancient timekeepers/navigators had to be star gazers) in temperate zones can easily see that all stars on the Celestial sphere rotate around the stationary Polar star (when observed from Northern hemisphere) or a stationary black point (from Southern hemisphere). It appears as if all circumpolar stars have been stuck on a heavenly disk pivoted on the Celestial pole in the sky and the disk rotates slowly during the night.

The stars have certainly been drawn on an Egyptian Senenmut star map since before 1473BC (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_ceiling_of_Senemut_Tomb)

220px-Senenmut ,

Figure: The double wall mural of the tomb of Senenmut, (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Senenmut.jpg), the image has been released into Public Domain.

in China Suchow map about 1190BC, and on walls of tombs in the land of present China, wiki, Chinese star maps

The rotation of the disk can be used to tell time. The rotation seems to be at constant speed as equal angles of rotation seem to always correspond to the same duration of time for burning incense sticks, reciting prayers, filling containers with dripping water, boiling water pots, etc…

Figure: A circular disk with the drawing of bright circumpolar stars as well as other bright stars visible in the sky.

To tell time accurately, the time keeper can draw the bright circumpolar stars (including the Little and Big Dippers) on a paper disk, hold the paper disk in the direction of the Celestial pole in the sky and rotate the paper disk to align the drawing to the actual star. The slow rotation of the paper disk indicates the passage of time. The accuracy of the method  depends on the size of the disk and the accuracy of its alignment to the real stars in the sky.

star disk alignmentFigure: Aligning the center of the paper star disk to the Celestial pole in the sky to determine its rotation during the night.

This method does not require the determination of meridional crossing of dim stars. Ancient time keepers may have used this method to keep accurate time at night using only bright stars..

3. Time divisions by meridional passing of selected stars.

A star makes a meridional passing when it pass the vertical plane in the North-South direction. That is when it is vertically on top of a wire strung in the North-South direction.

A time keeper may use the meridional passings of selected stars as markers for division of time (into many known recorded unequal parts) during night time.

Based on those markers a time keeper can divide the night into nearly equal intervals.

4. Improved Star disk for time keeping at night.

A bigger disk can be aligned more accurately, its rotation can be more accurately measured, but is harder to be held up in the sky. Making a bigger disk mounted in air for improved accuracy is therefore an expensive design.

star disk for equatorial mount on ground

Figure: A star disk on equatorial mount on the ground, to be read from its upper surface.

A better design is presented here and it is to make a big star disk on equatorial mount so that it will be parallel to the paper disk in the air but is mounted on the ground like a tilted round table top, with an aiming rod mounted at its center pointing to the Celestial pole. The star map engraved on the big disk here is a mirror reflection of the image of stars in the sky. An imaginary observer underneath the disk would see through it the image of the stars in the sky. Markings will be drawn accurately on the rim of the big disk for the positions of the engraved stars (which are drawn for a designated night of the year). There will also be regularly spaced markings for measuring the rotation of the observed stars from their engraved standard positions. A time keeper will only require access to the upper surface and the rim of this large star disk mounted on the ground.

 

star disk for mounting on the ground

Figure: A star disk for installing on an equatorial mount on the ground. The map here is a mirror reflection of the image in the sky. This disk is aligned for September Equinox.

With this type of large star disk and its central aiming rod, a time keeper can tell where a star is relative to its position engraved on the disk. The disk is engraved with drawing of the stars on one designated night which may be either the spring equinox night or the winter solstice night.

The spring equinox night has the advantage of accuracy of date in the year, it it the night when the Sun rises and sets exactly in the East and West principal directions. The winter solstice night has the advantage of  having the longest duration to observe stars.

On the designated date for the disk, the rotation of any star from its engraved position directly gives the time from midnight. On any other night an offset can be worked out using only a string placed along the perimeter of the circular disk. For every night subsequent to the designated night the stars move forward by nearly 1/365 of the perimeter.

5. Star disk for time keeping in the day.

The nights with partial Moon show that the Moon moves around the aiming rod at nearly the same speed as the stars. The days with partial Moon also show that the Moon and the Sun move around the aiming rod at nearly the same speed.
Therefore any time keeper with an inclined star disk will find that the Sun, the Moon and the stars all move together around the aiming rod with nearly the same speed. This would lead to his use of the inclined star disk for time keeping, with the advantage that the shadow of the aiming pole moves on the rim of the inclined disk at constant speed! So the inclined star disk also work as an equatorial mounted sundial (meaning the sundial disk is parallel to the equatorial plane.).
(This knowledge has given rise to the the description of Solar position in the Zodiac. The shifting of the Zodiac by precession shows that the association of solar position with the Zodiac has begun thousands of years ago.)

So far I had been able to find only equatorial mounted sundial with no engraving of stars. One such a sundial can be seen in Beijing. This disk has only time markings and can be read on both sides.

Figure: A sundial in the Forbidden City, or Imperial Palace, in Beijing. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABeijing_sundial.jpg, Date26 February 2003,  Author User: Sputnikcccp~commonswiki .Figure used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

During Winter months, a flat cardboard can be used to find the intersection of the shadow of the aiming stick and the rim of the large disk if it has no accessible lower surface.
Using the equatorial sundial during the days gives the advantage of fast determination of time with no required large seasonal adjustment. With the help of an equatorial mounted sundial, a time keeper can divide time into any number of equal intervals and can also work out the ratio of a vertical stick to its shadow at any time of the day.

6. Time keeping with an unclear sky.

Burning of incense is used to complement time keeping using star disk in days of poor visibility.

Time keepers have incense sticks for short term timing or incense coils which last up to three days for long term timing. Time keepers also have other methods for timing, they are reciting prayers, filling containers by dripping water, boiling water pots, etc…

7. Announcing time to surrounding area.

The time keeper may use drums or low pitch horns to announce the time to his surrounding area.

On receiving the signal for time, surrounding institutions such as nearby pagodas synchronize their own activities and then may sound their own gongs as secondary level time signals.

The population around the castle use these time signals to open their shops, prepare their predawn cookings etc…

The whole community relies on those signals to synchronize  their interacting activities.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Shadow-stick-navigation-and-graph-of-solar-paths, posted on August 19, 2016.

[2]. wiki, Astronomical_ceiling_of_Senemut_Tomb.

[3]. Suchow map, http://www.adlerplanetarium.org/exhibits/planetary-machines.

[4]. wiki, Chinese_star_maps

[5]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider, survivaltricks.wordpress.com , Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015.

[6]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015.

[7]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

[8]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, posted on May 19, 2015 .

DirectionBySun_12N .

RELATED SURVIVAL blogs

Shadow stick navigation and graph of solar paths, posted August 19, 2016

Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015<<<—This is my MOST USEFUL novel technique.

wpid-dividermwp3e2c2.jpg

find North by the Sun

Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

, posted July 22, 2016

NorthByKnownStar

Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver, posted January 17, 2017 The Scorpius constellation, posted January 8, 2017, The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016, Rice as emergency food.Using GPS in off-grid situationsSlide Sky-Disks with grid masks showing azimuths and altitudesSlide Sky-Map for displaying tropical stars.

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No Go Zones are halfway marks to Surrender of Sovereignty.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#no go zone, #sanctuary city, #refuge city, #immigration, #border controls. #surrender of sovereignty, #White genocide,

No Go Zones are halfway marks to Surrender of Sovereignty.

When the rulers of a country quietly cedes its territory to appease a potential aggressor or out of selfish own interests, they often do it with Enclaves, Ghettos which are then  turned into No Go Zones. This conceals their acts from the citizens of the country. By the time the citizens wake up it may be too late.

1. Steps leading to No Go Zones.

The rulers of country M, out of pressure from another country C (potential aggressor) or out of their selfish private interests, decided to let in a large (town sized) number of citizens of country C. They do it along the following steps.

1. The rulers of country M sign the agreement with country C to issue visas to citizens of country C under the pretext of: Promoting tourism, having guest workers, enriching the culture, offering refuge from disasters, etc..,

2. Country C then sends its most patriotic, fecund families into M as guest workers and traders. They will give birth to many children while in country M.

3. Some of these new comers will buy houses concentrated in one suburb or buy lands to build blocks of houses. The houses are either bought openly by citizens of C or by local front-men using their money.

4. The houses are purposely built to display the good features of the culture of country C to (presumably curious ?) citizens of country M. They are (misleadingly ?) called “cultural enrichment houses” promoting the niceties of country C.

5. The enclave is next populated by people from country C. Local police are WARNED NOT TO RACIALLY HARASS the inhabitants. Police will not enter the “cultural enrichment” suburb for fear of accusations of Racial Discrimination.([11]. How-california-officials-aim-to-prevent-racial-profiling-by-police )

6. Inhabitants of the “cultural enrichment town” want to carry out their own customs DESPITE the rules and the customs of the host country M. ([12]. Germany-bans-pork-cafes-schools-offending-Muslim-migrants , [13]. www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-nordics-insight/not-in-my-backyard-mainstream-scandinavia-warily-eyes-record-immigration , [14]. migrant-gets-15-months-sexually-abusing-children-young-five , [15]. www.irishtimes.com/news/world/europe/germany-brings-in-no-means-no-law-for-sex-offences , [16]. www.armstrongeconomics.com/international-news/europes-current-economy/refugees/sweden-on-the-brink-of-a-legal-crisis , [17]. absolute-nightmare-in-england-as-settled-refugees-begin-to-protest-for-the-implementation-of-sharia-law )

7. Inhabitants of the “cultural enrichment” town use money from their country of origin C in their daily trade among themselves, not the money of the host country M. They may even refuse to trade with citizens of country M using currency of M. ([18]. www.asiasentinel.com/society/laos-society/gambling-on-chinese-investment-in-laos)

8. Citizens of host country M are advised of NO GO ZONES due to fear for their safety when the inhabitants of that town become hostile to citizens of host country M. ([19]. www.rt.com/news/392009-eight-hoods-added-sweden-no-go-zone , [20]. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3390168/Migrant-rape-fears-spread-Europe-Women-told-not-night-assaults-carried-Sweden-Finland-Germany-Austria-Switzerland-amid-warnings-gangs-ordinating-attacks ).
9. The “model cultural enrichment” center now becomes a sanctuary city, refuge city for visitors from country C with expiring or no legal visa. ([21]. wiki/Sanctuary_city , [22]. chicago.cbslocal.com/2017/08/07/rahm-emanuel-lawsuit-justice-department-sanctuary-cities )

9. The “cultural enrichment town” name their streets after those in country C, forms sisterhood relationships with other cities in country C and start conducting its own Foreign Affairs.

10. Country M now cannot wind down the “cultural town” due to criticism from country C over the infringement of the rights of its citizens there. ([23]. mexico-criticizes-new-texas-sanctuary-city-law )

11. If country M has lax immigration and citizenship laws many 2nd and subsequent generations of immigrants/guest workers/traders will become Citizens of M only in name while remain Loyal oversea-born Citizens of C. ([7], http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/3582896/posts ).

12. These new “Citizens of M with Foreign Loyalty” now try to have many children to outnumber the native Citizens of M in “cultural enrichment town” .

13. When the ratio of “Citizens of M with Foreign Loyalty” is significant, country M will be in no doubt influenced by C. The level of influence increases years after years ([24]. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/09/28/key-takeaways-on-u-s-immigration-past-present-and-future )  as the new citizens originating from C have been selected to be most fecund and may legally receive birth incentives from country C.

14. When 51% of the votes are controlled by citizens with origin from C, a referendum will be called to turn the town into an autonomous region of country M.

15. Few referenda may fail but eventually autonomy will be established without using wars.

2. Avoiding problems.

1. A country should never invite a foreign group of different race, history and customs to settle in its territory unless satisfactory planning has been made regarding assimilation or coexistence.

2. Immigration from populous, poor countries into any wealthy country always carry such a risk. The host country should ensure that no group of immigrants can over-populate the native population.

3. Undue lobbying by some group of immigrants is the warning sign of coming loss of control by the host country.

4. A country with many immigrant new citizens should be well alerted for any programs directed at Loyal oversea-born Citizens from their countries of origins.

5. Racial wars are ugly  (such as in Rwanda, [8]. wiki/Rwandan_genocide, in former Yugoslavia, [9],  wiki/Yugoslav_Wars )  and creating enclaves which are No Go Zones is a dangerous possible path leading to such wars.

3. Genocide of host populations.

1. Each country should have its own population target and reproduction plan.

2.  It is outrageous to advocate against population growth in some selected countries (Green movements in US, UK, EU) while against population controls in others (criticism of China’s One child policy, criticism of India’s population control).

3. Double standard by Population Control Movements, Green Movements and Protests against Population Controls by Chinese government is just disguised WHITE GENOCIDE.

4. Its humane to help others but National Borders must maintained and respected. With good border controls each country can experiment and execute the best policy in its territory without harms to its neighbours. It comes back to the old adage “Good fences make good neighbours”.

4. Conclusions.

1. The present miseries in Africa, Middle East, South America should be mostly blamed on Over-population. The latter should be blamed on Lack of Population Control ( due to Human Rights Movements against Forced Population Control ?) while applying Modern Technology which reduces Natural Death Rate. The analogy is to equipping a car with a modern powerful engine while retaining its antiquated braking and steering systems.

2. It is regrettable that European cultures which contributed so much to modern life are now indoctrinated to commit suicide to please the combined demands by both Borders Abolition Movement and Equal Rights Movements. Without European cultures, would there be a modern living that other cultures are now enjoying? No go zones are the quarter-way marks on the path leading to that suicide destination.

3. White people should now opt for cemetery burials with funerary objects like (crushed) Guns, I-phones, cashless Cards so that few centuries later archaeologists would know that there were some “Caucasians” living in Europe around AD2000, augmenting the remains of “Caucasoid” living in Tarim desert in 1000 BC ([25]. wiki, Tarim mummies) !

References.

[1]. Sima Qian, Records of History by the grand historian (translated by Burton Watson), Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty I (Rev. Ed.) and Han Dynasty II (Rev. Ed.), the Res. Cent. for Transl. The Chinese Univ. of Hon Kong and Colubia Univ. Press, Hong Kong and New York, 1961.

[2]. Sun Tzu, The Art of War. First published in Chinese before 200BC. There are English translations.

[3]. tonytran2015, understanding-chinas-perpetual-wars-against-its-neighbours, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/04/01/%e2%80%8bunderstanding-chinas-perpetual-wars-against-its-neighbours/

[5]. anti-west-statements-turkish-president-erdogan-and-pm-davutoglu-muslim-countries-must-unite, http://www.memri.org, https://www.memri.org/reports/anti-west-statements-turkish-president-erdogan-and-pm-davutoglu-muslim-countries-must-unite

[6]. https://vikinglifeblog.wordpress.com/2017/04/30/demographic-genocide-2/

[7].  chinese-ucsd-students-protest-unreasonable-dalai-lama-invite-paid-by-red-china

[8]. wiki/Rwandan_genocide

[9]. wiki/Yugoslav_Wars ,

[10]. www.rfa.org/english/news/laos/casinos , http://www.rfa.org/english/news/laos/casinos-10152012175335.html 

[11]. How-california-officials-aim-to-prevent-racial-profiling-by-police

[12]. Germany-bans-pork-cafes-schools-offending-Muslim-migrants

[13]. www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-nordics-insight/not-in-my-backyard-mainstream-scandinavia-warily-eyes-record-immigration

[14]. migrant-gets-15-months-sexually-abusing-children-young-five

[15]. www.irishtimes.com/news/world/europe/germany-brings-in-no-means-no-law-for-sex-offences

[16]. www.armstrongeconomics.com/international-news/europes-current-economy/refugees/sweden-on-the-brink-of-a-legal-crisis

[17]. absolute-nightmare-in-england-as-settled-refugees-begin-to-protest-for-the-implementation-of-sharia-law

[18]. www.asiasentinel.com/society/laos-society/gambling-on-chinese-investment-in-laos

[19]. www.rt.com/news/392009-eight-hoods-added-sweden-no-go-zone

[20]. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3390168/Migrant-rape-fears-spread-Europe-Women-told-not-night-assaults-carried-Sweden-Finland-Germany-Austria-Switzerland-amid-warnings-gangs-ordinating-attacks

[21]. wiki/Sanctuary_city

[22]. chicago.cbslocal.com/2017/08/07/rahm-emanuel-lawsuit-justice-department-sanctuary-cities

[23]. mexico-criticizes-new-texas-sanctuary-city-law

[24]. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/09/28/key-takeaways-on-u-s-immigration-past-present-and-future

[25]. wiki, Tarim mummies

 

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Investors beware: Dividend Growth is misleading

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#company #bankruptcy, #investment, #dividend growth, #share dilution, #growth, #Net Earning, #return on investment,

Investors beware: Dividend Growth is misleading.

In analyzing return on a share investment, share-holders use the conveniently supplied figure of

Dividend/sharePrice + dividendGrowth 

to compare the return with those of government  bonds.
However, the figure is of little value as it is easily manipulated. An alternative figure should be used, it is

Dividend/sharePrice – Dilution + (projected Growth in Net Earning).

1. Dividend Growth is misleading.

Indeed,  the yearly schedules of payments of dividends are decided by company directors and may bear no relation with the real healthiness of the company. 

Directors can even determine a schedule of increasing dividends that inevitably leads to more and more debts and eventually to the bankrupcy of the company (This is similar to the situations of many Pension Funds in USA in 2017 (Can most pension funds last?, [16]).

2. Growth in Net Earning is more revealing.

 The alternative figure for calculating the return on investment is

Dividend/sharePrice – Dilution + (projected Growtth in Net Earning) .

The new figure is more revealing as it tells the (accurately known) dilution of shares by the issue of bonus (free or discounted) shares to directors (Bankers-given-outrageous-incomes-by-their-boards , [5]) and it requires the (responsible) projection of the growth of Net Earning after Interests and Taxes !

3. Shareholders to construct own figures.

Company directors would not want share holders to know the blatant rip-offs using bonus shares. Indeed, shares are diluted immediately after any issuance of additional shares.

Directors also don’t want to risk sticking their necks out giving irresponsibly optimistic (often miserably failed)  prediction of Growth in Net Earning after Interests and Taxes.

So companies will try to hide those two types of required figures of Dilution and projected Growth in Net Earning. Therefore investment publications would have only the figure of Div/Price plus past-Dividend-GROWTH.

However, past “performance is no guarantee for the future” in the current treacherous time. So shareholders should not expect the figures to be supplied by any company. They have to search for disclosures on bonus shares and details on operation of the company.

Finally, shareholders should be highly alerted to signs of any one of the following list of risks.

4. Sufficient single causes for a company crash.

Company Bankruptcy signs

Figure: List of single sufficient causes for a company crash. Any single cause in this list can cause a company to go bankrupt.

a/- Its banker does not want to be its easy going, friendly banker anymore. (The bank knows more than you do about the imminent cash flow of the company; see also [11]).

b/- Its clients can buy cheaper elsewhere.

c/- Its suppliers have switched to new clients (with no cash flow problem) who pay more promptly after each delivery.

d/- The company has run out of new subscribers for its new share issues (which is a substantial source of income providing for its yearly expenses).

e/- If the company cannot pay its debt installments and expenses on any due date, it is required by laws to be liquidated.

References

[1]. Ex-HBOS banker ‘sold his soul for swag’, bbc new, http://www.bbc.com/news/business-38842723, 2 February 2017.

[2].  Wolf Richter, S&P 500 Earnings Stuck at 2011 Levels, Stocks up 87% Since, Straight Line Logic , https://straightlinelogic.com/2017/02/19/sp-500-earnings-stuck-at-2011-levels-stocks-up-87-since-by-wolf-richter/

[3]. Barry Ritholtz, Excessive CEO Pay for Dumb Luck, bloomberg.com, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-06/excessive-ceo-pay-for-dumb-luck, accessed 07 Mar 2017.

[4]. Colin Twiggs, CEO pay is rigged | Barry Ritholz, Gold Stocks & Forex, https://wordpress.com/read/feeds/289142/posts/1366147221, 07 Mar 2017.

[5]. tonytran2015, Bankers-given-outrageous-incomes-by-their-boards , https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/22/bankers-given-outrageous-incomes-by-their-boards/, posted on December 22, 2016.

[6]. Mish Mishtalk, Margin debts hit record high-coinciding with extreme-consumer confidence, mishtalk.com, http://mishtalk.com/2017/03/30/margin-debt-hits-record-high-coinciding-with-extreme-consumer-confidence-analysts-say-dont-worry/, 30 March 2017.

[7]. stock-markets-sit-blithely-on-a-powerful-time-bomb, sentinel blog, http://sentinelblog.com/2017/04/22/stock-markets-sit-blithely-on-a-powerful-time-bomb/, accessed 22 April 2017.

[8]. https://lplresearch.com/2017/04/07/margin-debt-worry-or-overblown-anxiety/

[9]. Yashaswini Swamynathan, Reuters, The S&P 500 is worth $20 trillion for the first time, business insider, http://www.businessinsider.com/sp-500-market-cap-crosses-20-trillion-for-the-first-time-2017-2, Feb 13, 2017.

[10]. The last time this happened the market crashed, sentinelblog.com, https://sentinelblog.com/2017/04/22/the-last-time-this-happened-the-market-crashed/

[11].How Henry Walker Eltin imploded, https://www.crikey.com.au/2005/02/02/how-henry-walker-eltin-imploded/, 02 Feb 2005, accessed 05 May 2017.

[12]. http://wallstreetonparade.com/2016/08/bailed-out-citigroup-is-going-full-throttle-into-derivatives-that-blew-up-aig/

[13]. https://bonnerandpartners.com/u-s-stocks-are-disastrously-overvalued/

[14]. Michael Pento, curve-inversion-and-chaos-to-begin-by-december-2017, Re-Blogged  https://us-issues.com/2017/06/10/curve-inversion-and-chaos-to-begin-by-december-2017/
By Michael Pento – Re-Blogged From PentoPort

[15]. Private Equity firms stuck in brick and mortar retailers, wolfstreet.com, http://wolfstreet.com/2016/05/03/fairway-group-bankruptcy-pe-firms-stuck-in-brick-and-mortar-retailers-albertsons-safeway-ipo/

[16]. tonytran2015, Can most pension funds last?, , https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/10/can-most-pension-funds-last/

Added after Sept 10, 2017:

[17]. https://blog.nader.org/2017/09/13/destructive-stock-buybacks-that-you-pay-for/

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Predicting the temperature of a habitat

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#finding, #comfortable, #temperature, #habitat, #daily, #annual, #seasonal, #fluctuation,

Predicting the temperature of a habitat.

When you plan to leave your house for a short walk or for a long journey or for a camping trip, it is vital to be able to predict the temperature of the habitat involved in your trip.

1. Central role of environmental temperature.

The functioning of your body and your comfort depends on the temperature of the environment. If it is too hot you may lose a lot of water through breathing and sweating, your brain may stop working. If it is too cold you will feel like having cuts on your skin, may have frozen extremities and your brain may slow down appreciately. Extremely high or low temperature  may cause death.

The temperature ranges for your comfort are

Sleeping 30°C to 37°C on body skin.

Moderately active: 25°C to 37°C.

Active state: 15°C to 37°C.

Outside this range of comfortable temperatures, the body has to activate its temperature stabilizing processes:

1. Cooling by increasing evaporation of water in the body through increased breathing and perspirating.

2. Heating by trembling, uncontrolled shaking and minimizing heat loss by raising skin hairs (causing goose bumps) and decreasing blood flow through limbs and lower torso.

So to be comfortable you have to plan your activities, sleeps and cooking depending on expected environmental temperature.

For comfortable cold nights, the temperature inside your bed or your sleeping bag should remain around 25°C – 29°C with actually measurement !

You have to plan your activities, sleeps and cooking depending on expected environmental temperature.

When it is hot you need to carry more drinking water, food may spoil easily but less fuel is required for cooking and fewer clothes are needed.

When it is cold your activities, food consumption, cooking time and your requirements for fuel will increase. You also need a lot of clothes.

Your tent set up, camp fire, camp cooking, have to adapt to extreme temperature conditions.

Figure: A low cost 75mmL X 40mmW plastic compass with thermometer and relative hygrometer on its top cover.

Some people carry unbreakable, accurate portable thermometers to avoid mis-judgement on their planning. Those portable thermometers are central to the planning.

To be able to predict the temperature of a habitat, you have to know about three different types of temperature fluctuation.

Temperature  has 3 main types of variation. They are superimposed on each other:

1. Daily,

2. Yearly (seasonal).

3. Caused by Air flows.

2. Daily fluctuation of temperature.

The daily temperature is coldest at the end of the sunlight deficit period and warmest at the end of surplus period.

So codest and hottest times for  any 24 hour period are before sunrise  and sunset.

3. Seasonal fluctuation of temperature.

solar-declination-by-a-watch-faceFigure: Determining solar declination using a watch face. (The lines SOLAR DECLINATION Its rough estimate is required for Fine Alignment of the watch are to be ignored.)

Solar Declination makes days longer or shorter during the year.

For Northern hemisphere from Mar 21 to Sep 23. the Sun stays up in the sky for more than 12 hours, so there is a surplus of sunlight during that 6 months and the temperature becomes hottest at the end of the period. It works similarly for the other half-year. The seasonal temperature curve looks almost like the Solar Declination curve, but lags it by 3 months.

The seasonal temperature is hottest at the end of the sunlight surplus half-year and coldest at the end of deficit half-year.

So for the Northen temperate zone, hottest and coldest nights for the seasons are on 23rd Sep and 21st Mar. The opposite happens to the Southern hemisphere.

Daily fluctuations are strongest near the equator while seasonal fluctuations are strongest near the poles.

Adding the daily and seasonal fluctuations give the surface temperature of a windless desert under a clear sky or of a flat ground surface underneath a wide glass house. There is still the fluctuation brought by winds, evaporation and rains to be considered.

4. Fluctuation caused by movements of air masses.

Besides the easy to predict annual and daily fluctuations, there is a more profound fluctuation caused by the movements of air masses. The movements are called winds.

Winds can bring hotter or colder, drier or more moist air. The consequential variation in temperarure is added on top of daily and annually fluctuations to give the total fluctuation.

You have to obtain this fluctuation from the forecasts made by local weather bureau.

1. Besides bringing air with a different temperature, unsaturated wind can also evaporate water on your clothing and your skin. This evaporation can bring your exposed wet clothing down by about 5 degrees C.

2. Cold and dry wind can make your skin cracks.

5. Effects of nearby water masses.

Nearby mass of water may affect the temperature significantly.

Unsaturated wind blowing across a lake can cool down by about 5°C.

Daily and seasonal fluctuations of water in a large lake are small. This is due to the high specific heat of water.

In summary, near a lake, the average temperature over the whole year will be slightly lower (about 5 degree C lower) and both the daily and the seasonal fluctuations will also be less.

6. Avoiding excessively cold places.

Avoid sleeping under the open sky in a desert or on a rock. The air near the ground loses its moisture content and heat and become drier, denser and colder. This layer of air near the ground may then become too cold for your comfort.

Find a place under a cover on a ground with vegetable to avoid such coldness.

The temperature inside any cave also fluctuates less than on any nearby open ground. The same holds true for the space at the corner of two tall walls.

However, before using any such natural advantage, other risks such as rock falls, snake bites, insect bites, etc . . .  must be assessed.

8. Avoiding excessively hot places.

Avoid sleeping under direct sunlight in a desert or on a rock !  This is so obvious.

Walk on paths with planted trees.

9. Plan your trip to have your prefered temperature.

Select trip time to have your prefered temperature. Also choose your route through areas with comfortable temperature. Doing that can give you a better trip than not doing any planning.
Bring your suitable clothing and gears to keep yourself warm and dry.

 

Reference.

[1].

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Government money flowing into private banks.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia) .

#money, #private bank, #Federal Reserve Banks, #underwriting fee, #bond, #quantitative easing,

Government money flowing into private banks.

American people keep paying to private bankers through (private) Federal Reserve Bank and various schemes.

1. USA fiat money.

fiatmoneyc60.jpg

Figure: Fiat money relies only on the taxation power of its issuing government for its backing.

From the above simple design for fiat money, International Private Bankers have managed to hook onto it their system living off the flow of fiat money.

2. Current flow of US money.

Fogure: Private banks are taking money off the government. Solid arrows represent current flows, hollow arrows future flows. Three dark green boxes on the right represent FRB.

Private banks “earn” their money from the government by:

1, “Underwriting” the issuing of new US money !

2. “Earning interest” for leaving their fractional deposits at (private) Federal Reserve Bank.

3. Influencing Government’s policies on Government Bonds.

4. Having free money from Quantitative Easing.

Notes:

1. The government of USA is a money sovereign. It can print as much fiat money as it likes (and bear the consequences). Its fiat money has value to American people because they have to use it to pay taxes to their federal and states governments.

2. The deposits by the contributing constituent, private banks of the Federal Reserve Bank are part of their own effort to make themselves appear more liquid. They cannot demand any interest from the government on their deposits, just like airlines cannot demand government compensation on the costs of carrying their statutory reserve fuel on each flight.  It is currently (for 2016) costing $40 per year per person for the US to keep using the private Federal Reserve Bank.

3. It is nice when you are the buyers of Bonds and you can influence the seller (government) !

4. Early redeeming of bonds still at face value is having free money  (   [11]).

3. Chilling story of United States Notes.

Presidents Abraham LincolnThomas Jefferson and John F.Kennedy had seen the unfairness of private bankers charging interests to the country and had tried to unshackle the burden on the country. Lincoln and Kennedy had been assassinated while Jefferson survived the assassination attempt.

A chilling history of private bankers gripping the US government system is given by reference [9]:

“Central bank usury control caused the US Constitution… to get their First Bank Of  The United States in 1791. … When their 20-year charter was up in 1811, the Jeffersonian Democrats prevented its charter from being renewed. So the Rothschild bankers summoned their mercenaries (the British army and navy) to teach us a lesson, the War of 1812. … they got their Second Bank Of The U.S., again with a 20-year charter. When Andrew Jackson was elected in 1828, the bankers tried everything to stop him; they created the 1833 recession; had him censured in 1834; and a failed (both guns misfired) assassination attempt on Jan. 30, 1835… Jackson killed the bank in 1836, … During the Am. Civil War, Abraham Lincoln created Greenbacks instead of the 24% to 36% usury the Wall Street bankers wanted to charge, and he was assassinated on Good Friday 1865. … 1913 the Rothschild bank got their …. Federal Reserve Bank. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 originally had a 20-year charter. But … 1927, the McFadden Pepper Act was signed into law. It made the F.R.’s power over our monetary policy perpetual. . … 1963, President John F. Kennedy created United States Treasury Notes, known as Silver Certificates, with Executive Order 11110, and he was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.”


4. Conclusion.

Bankers are now even pushing for the use of cashless cards issued by them [10] !

American people should resist that and should further demand United States Notes (each with a red seal) issued directly by the Treasury just like those issued under Kennedy’s administration. Those notes had nothing to do with the FRB.

Using the dollar notes with red seals (such as Five dollar with Red Seal Notes in series 1953 A through C, see picture in reference Five-Dollar-Bill-Red-Seal-Series [6]) will save Americans $40 per head each year.

References:

[1]. Your fiat money, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/01/09/your-fiat-money/

[2]. Your fiat money (Part 2), https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/your-fiat-money-part-2/

[3]. The-thirty-families-made-plans-for-a-future-without-you, theMicky.org, http://mikeyy.org/2017/01/30/the-thirty-families-made-plans-for-a-future-without-you/, originally by horse237, https://vidrebel.wordpress.com/2017/01/30/the-thirty-families-made-plans-for-a-future-without-you/

[4]. Stack Jones, The Banking Swindle-The History of Banking Fraud,  criminalbankingmonopoly.wordpress.com, https://criminalbankingmonopoly.wordpress.com/2014/02/20/history-of-banking/#comments, accessed Jan 2nd, 2017.

[5]. Federal Reserve System, wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Reserve_System, accessed Jan 2nd, 2017.

[6]. Five Dollar Bill Red Seal Series 1953 US Currency, Natural Web Solutions Inc.(US), https://www.collectons.com/shop/item/58107/Five-Dollar-Bill-Red-Seal-Series-1953-US-Currency#imgs58107

[7]. Us issues, Central banks alchemists of finance part iii-reblogging, http://us-issues.com/2017/04/05/central-banks-alchemists-of-finance-part-iii/, 03 April 2017

[8]. Dale B. Halling,  History of Central Banks in the United States, thesavvystreet.com, http://www.thesavvystreet.com, accessed 03 April 2017.

[9]. http://rudolfhess.net/

[10]. tonytran2015,  ,

[11]. , Reuter https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-us-economy-imf-idUKBRE95O0P720130625, June 25, 2013.

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Understanding Foreign Trading with China (Beware of strangers bearing gifts)

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#Foreign Trade #China #punitive campaigns, #strangers bearing gifts, #Dayuan, #Han,

Understanding Foreign Trading with China (Beware of strangers bearing gifts)

1. The purpose of Foreign Trading by China.

China is subscribing to the concept of  [1], and only use Foreign Trading as a mean to prise open other nations, to provide itself with opportunities to invade.

Learning from reference [2] which is essentially a summary of the writing in [3], we can see typical unfolding of events. They happened two thousand years ago but still can reappear now.

First Han (China) wanted to apply the method of  to relieve pressure from its strongest neighbour Xiongnu,

“The Han court dispatched Zhang Qian, a military officer who was familiar with the Xiongnu, to the Western Regions in 138 BC … to make contact and build an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.
Zhang Qian returned in 125 BC with detailed news for the Emperor, showing that sophisticated civilizations existed to the West, with which China could advantageously develop relations. ” [2].

Figure: Dayuan, from Wikipedia, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dayuan, File:Ta-YuanMap.jpg licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike

Dayuan were not interested in neither war nor alliance with China, so China only wanted to trade with Dayuan while preying on Dayuan:

“The Shiji relates that “the Emperor learned of the Dayuan (大宛), Daxia (大夏), Anxi (安息), and the others, all great states rich in unusual products whose people cultivated the land and made their living in much the same way as the Chinese. All these states, he was told, were militarily weak and prized Han goods and wealth”.”[2].

But Dayuan had some NOT-FOR-EXPORT items and Dayuan was weak so China wanted them:

“After being released from captivity by Xiongnu, Zhang Qian visited Dayuan, located in the Fergana region west of the Tarim Basin. The people of Dayuan were being portrayed as sophisticated urban dwellers similar to the Parthians and the Bactrians. 
“Dayuan lies southwest of the territory of the Xiongnu, some 10,000 li (5,000 kilometers) directly west of China. The people are settled on the land, plowing the fields and growing rice and wheat. They also make wine out of grapes. The people live in houses in fortified cities, there being some seventy or more cities of various sizes in the region. The population numbers several hundred thousand” (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian quote, trans. Burton Watson).
Zhang reported the famous tall and powerful “blood-sweating” Ferghana horse. The refusal by Dayuan to offer these horses to Emperor Wu of Han resulted in two punitive campaigns launched by the Han Dynasty to acquire these horses by force.”[2].

So Dayuan had not been wary of strangers bearing gifts and it had been punished  !

2. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. 

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” is a well known phrase from George_Santayana). [5]

Currently there are many countries trying to have their chance to trade with China (The Silk Road project [6], [7],[8]). Probably, they have not learnt from the past. The following statement written some 2000 years ago is still appropriately applicable to them: All these states,… , were militarily weak and prized Han goods and wealth [2].

3. Conclusions.

1. Present China still hold Han China as its model empire. The future of those weak countries trying to trade with China does not look good.
2. Foreign trading is a dangerous double sided sword and cannot be left unregulated.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, understanding-chinas-perpetual-wars-against-its-neighbours, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/04/01/%e2%80%8bunderstanding-chinas-perpetual-wars-against-its-neighbours/

[2].  

[3]. Sima Qian, Records of History by the grand historian (translated by Burton Watson), Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty I (Rev. Ed.) and Han Dynasty II (Rev. Ed.), the Res. Cent. for Transl. The Chinese Univ. of Hon Kong and Colubia Univ. Press, Hong Kong and New York, 1961.

[4]. Sun Tzu, The Art of War. First published in Chinese before 200BC. There are English translations.

[5]. Santayana, https://en.m.wikiquote.org/wiki/George_Santayana

[6]. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-05-14/china-plans-new-silk-road-to-dominate-world-trade/8522682

[7]. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2017/05/china-silk-road-project-trap-opportunity-170514142652061.html

[8]. http://www.bbc.com/news/business-40044113

[9]. https://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/B0006QY4WS/ref=cm_cr_srp_mb_bdcrb_top?ie=UTF8

[10]. http://bookish.asia/ways-that-are-dark-the-truth-about-china-%E2%80%A2-ralph-townsend/

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Adding Longitude and Latitude Lines to a map

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #GPS, #navigation, #off grid, #adding, #longitude, #latitude, #coordinate, #lines, #map,

Adding Longitude and Latitude Lines to a map.

Locating where you are using the internet is great but there are times when you have no mean to connect to the internet and you have to use GPS for positioning without any assistance via the internet. Such a situation may arise when you have no internet coverage or when going hiking.

If you want to use your GPS off-grid with any map, you need to draw on top of the map an accurate system of regularly spaced longitude and latitude coordinate lines

This posting shows how to add the lines.

1. Making a map graduated with Longitude and Latitude Lines. 

1. Choose a map with your required resolution and range. The resolution differs for different application: For city street maps resolution should be better than 2m, for country town maps, resolurion only need to be better than 5m as houses are widely separated, for touring, exploring maps, resolution can be upto the (1/10) of the visual range, etc…

2. Make sure that the top of the map points to true North. (In some countries, maps are deliberately oriented at angle to true North, probably for security reasons.)

Figure: Openstreetmap for Melbourne with 3 airport landmarks. Map is used under Open License from Open Street Map, the data are owned by Open Street Map Contributors.

3. On that map, find some unmistakable features such as a well known Airport or Helipad, a Light House, a TV Transmission Tower, a Town Hall, Churches, Schools, Cottages in a forrest, sharply defined mountain peaks, trail intersections… with known longitudes and latitudes. Their coordinates are usually given on the Internet or or easily extracted from Google Map or Navigating Apps.
Find two to four such fearures located near the four extreme corners of your map. They will be used as land marks.

Ecample:

The 3 landmarks that can be used here are:

a. Melbourne Tullamarine airport, Elevation AMSL 434 ft / 132 m, Coordinates 37°40′24″S 144°50′36″E

b. Melbourne Moorabin airport, Elevation AMSL 50 ft / 15 m, Coordinates 37°58′33″S 145°06′08″E

c. Melbourne Essendon airport, Elevation AMSL 282 ft / 86 m, Coordinates 37°43′41″S 144°54′07″E

4. On a separate fresh sheet of paper make a coordinate grid of longitude and latitude covering your range.
On this sheet with grid but no map, mark the coordinates of your land marks.

Figure: Melbourne Tullamarine and Moorabin airports on a grid map.

5. Check that the shape of the figures formed by the land marks are similar in both the grid sheet and the map. You may have to stretch  or shrink the grid vertically and then horizontally to have a fit. The figures should be similar if no mistakes have been made. If the shapes are similar you can proceed to the next step.

6a, If the map and grid are both digital, they can be superimposed in the computer to produce the following map with added coordinate lines:

Figure: Openstreetmap for Melbourne with added cooodinates. Map has been modified from original map used under Open License from Open Street Map, the data are owned by Open Street Map Contributors.

The added lines are on round figure coordinates and are 2 minutes of arc apart. The intersection nearest to the NW of Tullamarine airport has coordinate (144°50′E, 37°40′S ). 

6b. If you are using printed map: Join two distant landmarks on the coordinate sheet and notice where the lines of “minute of longititude” and of “minute of latitude” intersect it

7. If you are using printed map:  Reproduce that line, with all its intersecting points, on the actual paper map.

8. If you are using printed map: From these intersecting points project corresponding vertical lines to make the  “minute of longititude” lines and horizontal lines to make “minute of latitude” lines.

9. The map is now graduated with longitude and laritude lines.

10. Its grid can now be used as a base to draw finer grids for detail maps with higher resolutions.

2. Using GPS with maps. 

You can download a (preferably topological) map of your area to practice drawing the coordinate lines, the constant altitude lines and learn about the accuracy of the values of longitude, latitude and altitude given by your GPS apps.

It is preferable to use topographic maps with old fashioned land marks (such as churches, tall towers …). Topographic maps give the additional constant ground altitude contours (relative to some mean sea level surface). Constant altitude curves are the faint brown curves on the map illustrated here. The height of each contour is given by a small number. The altitude values of 20m and 10m have been highlighted in this example map by two red circles.

 

Figure: Opentopomap for the area in my test. Map is used under Open License from Open Street Map, the data are owned by Open Street Map Contributors.

References

[1]. tonytran2015, Using GPS in off-grid situations., posted December 6, 2016

[2]. tonytran2015, Measuring angles and distances for outdoor survival, survivaltricks.wordpress.com,

https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/06/29/measuring-angles-and-distances-for-outdoor-survival/, posted 29/6/2016.

[3]. tonytran2015, Selecting and using magnetic compasses, survivaltricks.wordpress.com,

https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/09/selecting-and-using-magnetic-compasses/, posted 09/7/2016.

[4]. , BBC News, UK radio disturbance caused by satellite network bug,

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35463347, 2 February 2016.

 

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Miseries unleashed by push for Cashless trading

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#bank gouge, #cashless, #rip off, #bank fee, #bank charge, #penalty, #overdraft.

Miseries unleashed by push for Cashless trading.

The bank advocates in Australia used the pretext of fighting tax evasion and organized crime [1] to advocate the abolition of cash. Is this their real motive? As usual, we have to think that bank profit is the real motive. The situation in Australia is just a local version of wider analoguous global events.

1. Definition of Cashless societies.

In setting up cashless societies, governments require each person to open a bank account and put all his earning and spending through that bank account. They claim doing this reduces tax evasion and organized crime.

2. Can tax evasion be reduced?

No. People can still form Work Parties to trade their works (tax free) ! Similarly, people can exchange their services for goods.

For evasions by trademen and retailers, random inspection can drastically increase compliance with existing GST, VAT system using cash.

3. Can organized crime be reduced?

a. It is now known that Russian organized crime flourished in the Soviet era as people could still give one another ration cards, goods, service, favours, etc.

b. The Commonwealth Bank of Australia did not get any fine for transgressing the rules on Cash transactions. (Yes, the Australian Government still shamelessly said that it wanted to fight organized crime by bank rules !)

So it is only hopeful talk on its effects [19], [20], , [24].

4. The real motive in making a cashless society:

a. Private International Bankers have owned Central banks of USA, England [2], and now they want a firmer grip on national finance of each country.

From partial ownership of Federal Reserve Bank, they annually collect $40 USD per American head (They love it to  the point of assassinating 2 US Presidents and attempted (failed) assassination of another US President.). We have to imagine how much more they can collect if they also control individual accounts of each person.

b. Int. bankers failed attempts to lure people into Diner Club, American Express, Visa, Master Cards tell them that they have to herd users into their system by legal compulsion.

c. Their failure is caused by people’s aversion to their multitude of fees: joining, interests on debits of more than 28 days, penalties for not meeting monthly minimum payments, etc… (, [23]).

d. They tried to promote their cards again by TV advertisements, asking hired cars companies and hotels to limit business to only credit card holders.

e. They still failed.

f. So they realized that the easiest way to herd people into their finacial systems is to have cash removed. Finally, they had the Indian government doing exactly what they wanted!

Figure: The setting up of a fiat money.

In my illustration for the setting up of fiat money, just imagine that there was a banker in front of the government building intercepting all transactions between it and its citizens and even among the citizens. Can you trust that banker?

5. People are forced to put their savings into banks and give credits to stores.

People have to put their money in the banks to increase the ratios of money kept over all money on loans from those banls.

Stores will have to issue trade account vouchers to replace cash. Prudent people will have to buy these vouchers to avoid being left without foods, clothes and everything else if the internet or the banks or all shut down.

Prepayment of goods for about two month of supplies is in effect giving credits to the stores.

If the stores go bankrupt, your customer voucher cards may give you higher priority than unsecured trade creditors !

This has also been suspected as a real motive for the Indian goverment’s attempt to force cashless systems on Indian people [4].

6. How to avoid bank gouge.

(The long rules to avoid fees, rip-off penalties and inconvenience.)

In a cashless society, each person must have a bank account with a card. So you have to adhere to the following rules:

1. Select a card WITHOUT OVERDRAFT FACILITY from a bank with no joining fee, no monthly fee and no exit fees.

This may be possible but may also be impossible depending on competition between the banks. You also have to expressively tell the bank that you DON’T WANT ANY OVERDRAFT. Failing to say that may allow them to charge you hefty overdraft fees.

2. Try to find sellers with no or low charges on your purchase transactions.

3. Keep track of your deposits and spendings on a WRITTEN piece of paper to match up your balance figures with those on monthly bank statements.

4. Find out the exact dates your deposits will be added to and various fees deducted from your balance. The delays on adding the deposit may be blamed on non-business days, 3 days delays for the bank to use your money for free, failure by their own computers or connection network !

5. Eagerly read your monthly statements to reconcile your balance after receiving it.

6. Leave about $10 in your account card to cover for the anticipated differences caused by different ways of calculating the balance (fees on your deposits, fees on your purchases). This prevents it going into negative, triggering an OVERDRAFT mode for that they can whack a huge FEE (penalty ?) of about $20USD on your account. (Please reread rule #1 !)

7. IMMEDIATELY notify the bank if statement fails to arrive. IMMEDIATELY report to the bank any discrepancy between the monthly statement and your own written record of the account.  Non-reporting implies your acceptance of their statements and later discovery of any difference will not be LEGALLY accepted. (Please reread rule #3 !)

8. Only shop at your familiar shops, avoid shopping at unfamiliar shops which may run a card scam on you.
7. Do not enquire about your balance more often than you are allowed to (about 6 free enquiries per month, each additional enquiry cost you $1.00USD).

9. Do not purchase more often than you are allowed to (the relevant governments have to make rulings on the frequencies). Each extra purchase trip may cost you some transaction fees of about $2.00USD (estimation only).

10. If you transgress (or is trapped by ?) any of the bank rules (like not paying their arbitrarily imposed rip-off penalty) your account card will be locked up and have no way to access your deposits (whether they are your salaries or government allowances) until you open another account card at another bank (usually with high fees and penaties conditions). You have to live off your family and friends while waiting for the new card.

7. Incidental (rip off?) fees.

1. OVERDRAFT FEES if applicable ($30 AUD = $25 USD per triggering in Australia and much higher in the UK, at £90 per month [6]).

2. STATEMENT REPRINT FEES ($30 AUD = $25 USD per monthly listing in Australia).

3. Plastic card replacement fees.

4. Balance enquiry fees when exceeding allowed numbers.

5. Outrageous fees if you use you cards oversea ( [22]).

8. Systemic risks to account holders.

1. The internet can collapse at any time leaving account holders in the cold  (  [7]),  or some hacker may attack to lock up all customer accounts ( [7a]). 

2. According to current banking rules in major English speaking countries, customers will lose their money deposited to their accounts if the bank goes bankrupt. Only 10% of total of all deposits are kept for them in the Central Bank (which may also be privately owned, as in USA and in UK !). 

So if any bank has some misfortune,  its customers can say goodbye to their strings of 0’s and 1’s. In the time following that they have to somehow survive, waiting for the Central Bank to intervene !

The risk is not imaginary. Multiple banks have been defrauded. The Bangandesh Central Bank have been defrauded by just a single of many possible scams ( [8]). Similarly, a giant French bank has been exposed to billions of loss ( [21]).

9. Social consequences.

1. Homeless have to beg for shelters, foods or clothings, not money.
2. Casual, unplanned  cash in hand jobs for handimen will disappears.

3. Sunday markets, garage sales will disappear.

4. Small repairs and odd works are to be carried by registered handimen at much higher costs (with their well known tricks of making small jobs big).

5. Houses deteriorate due to high maintenance costs.

6. With a captive market, banks can increase their fees and impose penalties at their will. Bankers become a new ruling class.

7. Stores will have to issue trade account vouchers to replace cash. Prudent people will have to buy these vouchers to avoid being without foods, clothes and everything else if the banks shut down.
8. Economic slow down due to lack of fluidity of transactions (look at India after demonetizing for an example).

9. Underworld now trade in high value goods (companies, houses), influence, favours and forced, inhouse labours.

10. Conclusion.

You have been warned! Bankers are really desperate for your money [17].

References.

[1]. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-08-18/cba-the-only-bank-on-austrac-radar/8820686

[2]. http://rudolfhess.net/

[3]. India rupee ban: Ex-PM Manmohan Singh rubbishes Modi crackdown, BBC News Services, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-38088177, 24 November 2016.

[4]. http://indianexpress.com/article/blogs/demonetisation-implementation-cash-crunch-digital-payments-cashless-transactions-4435312/

[5]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Bank_robbery

[6]. https://speakout.38degrees.org.uk/campaigns/2560?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=advert&utm_campaign=18_8_2017_unfair&bucket=facebook-advert-18_8_2017_unfair.

[7]. 

[7a]. tonytran2015,  .https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/11/20/collapse-of-online-banking-is-not-a-remote-risk/, posted on 

[8]. )


[9]. Neha Sharma and Shalu Yadav, The Indian village that has returned to bartering, BBC News Services, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-38180075, 5 December 2016.

[10]. Patrick Bodenham, Will Spain’s coal belt survive through online barter?, BBC News Services, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38731808, 2 February 2017.

[11]. James Melik, Haggling and bartering gain appeal, BBC News Services, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7883050.stm, 12 February 2009.

[12]. Mark Lowen, Greece bartering system popular in Volos, BBC News Services, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-17680904, 12 April 2012.

[13]. https://mishtalk.com/2017/08/16/india-bans-gold-exports-without-a-valid-reason/

[14]. https://astutenews.com/2016/11/17/war-on-cash-intensifies-citibank-to-stop-accepting-cash-at-some-branches/

[15]. Ex-HBOS banker ‘sold his soul for swag’, bbc new, http://www.bbc.com/news/business-38842723, 2 February 2017.

[16]. Barry Ritholtz, Excessive CEO Pay for Dumb Luck, bloomberg.com, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-06/excessive-ceo-pay-for-dumb-luck, accessed 07 Mar 2017

[17]. tonytran2015, Bankers given outrageous incomes by their boards, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/22/bankers-given-outrageous-incomes-by-their-boards/, posted on December 22, 2016

[18]. http://wallstreetonparade.com/2016/08/bailed-out-citigroup-is-going-full-throttle-into-derivatives-that-blew-up-aig/

[19]. http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/cashless-welfare-card-backfires-with-increase-in-crime-according-to-aboriginal-health-council-of-wa/news-story/adc141c9c21467e3c33b6355ff682c29

[20]. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/jan/09/ration-days-again-cashless-welfare-card-ignites-shame.

[21]. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/22818054/ns/business-world_business/t/french-bank-blames-trader-billion-fraud/

]22]. tonytran2015, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/02/avoiding-high-costs-of-credit-cards-on-oversea-transactions/

[23]. , news.com.au, http://www.news.com.au/finance/business/banking/customer-fee-gouge-rolls-on-as-banks-make-massive-profits/news-story/5084b9b9f08c8836f6056fed84092b6b

[24]. https://www.bloombergquint.com/global-economics/2017/08/30/india-central-bank-spends-record-amount-to-replace-void-notes

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