Vietnamese Sour Soup of Minty Indian Taro (Canh chua bạc hà)

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#Canh chua. #Bac Ha, #Canh chua Bac Ha, #Indian taro, #Minty taro, #Colocasia gigantea, #sour soup.

1. Vietnamese Sour Soup of Minty (Indian) Taro.

Figure: Sour soup of Minty Indian Taro (Vietnamese Canh chua bạc hà)  in 200 ml bowl.

Figure 2: Sour soup of Minty Indian Taro (Vietnamese Canh chua bạc hà) in 200 ml bowl.

Called Canh chua Bac Ha in Vietnamese. 

Figure 3: Soup of Bean Shoots in Minty Indian taro.

Sour soup of Minty (Indian) Taro (Vietnamese canh chua bạc hà) is quite tasty, healthy and nutritious. 

It is prepared by boiling the slanted slices of stalks of the plant Colocasia gigantea (also called giant elephant ear or Indian taro) with other small anounts of other (optional and depending on your prefered tastes) herbs until they soften and the water becomes slightly brown, tasty and sour (acidic). 

The sour soup has a lot of Calcium Oxalate making it acidic. It is obvious that no copper should come into contact with the soup.

Figure: Indian taro (Colocasia gigantea), from Wikipedia, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colocasia_gigantea, file: Gardenology.org-IMG 7621 qsbg11mar.jpg, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike, 

Colocasia gigantea (also called giant elephant ear or Indian taro) is a 1.5–3 m tall herb with a large, fibrous stalk.(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colocasia_gigantea)

Green Bạc Hà (Colocasia gigantea ) can be obtained from

http://www.tratiphashop.com/Cay-Bac-Ha-Nau-Canh-Chua-575-5.aspx

WARNING: Other parts of the plant may be lightly toxic. Proper learning is required to prepare this soup.

2. Where to find it.

It is an inexpensive dish (costing 4000VND =20cUS in 2017) in Vietnam (in Saigon).  It is included in the inexpensive meal outlets (Cơm Bình Dân, Cơm Sinh Viên, Cơm Văn Phòng) sold to Workers, Students, Office Workers, Neighbour Resident.

I don’t know how much it would cost in a Vietnamese restaurant outside Vietnam. It may cost you $4.00US (?).

References.

[1].  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colocasia_gigantea

[2]. http://www.tratiphashop.com/Cay-Bac-Ha-Nau-Canh-Chua-575-5.aspx

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The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 5: Company Asset Strippers and Conspirators.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia)

#parasite, #asset stripping, #private equity, 

The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 5: Company Asset Strippers and Conspirators.


A company operates to generate profits to be distributed to its shareholders. Unfortunately, the sheeplike shareholders have allowed their own dividend incomes to be reduced over long periods. This injustice is spotted by PE that moved in and took away the unjustly accumulated assets. 

Generations of shareholders lost the assets owned but hidden from them. They blamed the PE but the it was really their management who set up the scene.

1. Steps leading to an Asset Stripping.

1. Company directors pay themselves and their associates extravagant fees and bonuses at the expense of shareholder dividends.

2. Company accountants receiving directions from their bosses and hides real situations from shareholders.

3. Dividend payouts are kept small under the guise of “retaining for future expansion”, so that directors payments can be made huge but admittedly some capital is actually accumulated “for future expansion”.

4. Earning/Price is now much smaller than Governments Bond rates (adjusted for inflation effect). 

5. Company assets become unknown after years of obfuscation by accountants  Earning capacity becomes uncertain but shareprices depend on it

6. Shareholders have been betrayed of trusts, got tired with begging for their rightly entitled dividends so they sold away shares at low prices.

7. PE (Private Equities) move in, buy enough shares to control the company.

8. Controling shares direct this asset rich company to enter into one sided loan agreements with the PE to siphon away the assets.

9. The company is then deregistered or declared bankrupt after its huge assets have been siphoned, making huge profits to the PE owning the controling shareholders.

10. The controling last shareholders are called the Asset Strippers. They siphon away the huge asset contributed by previous generations of shareholders leaving other creditors to the company with losses and company employees with unemployment and distress.

2. Are only Asset Strippers to be blamed.

Private Equities only do the economically logical thing of taking away the asset that did not produce adequate dividends. 

The real villains are the directors who betrayed their shareholders trust and caused shareholders to sell out. Shareholders have already given up on (or have been robbed of ?) their capitals when they accepted minuscule dividents for their capital contributed at IPO (Initial Public Offer).


3. Avoiding losses caused by Asset Stripping.

1. Dont own any shares if you can.

2. Investors should  not buy shares in any company unless they fully know its operation and director payments. 

3. Investors have to be very wary of companies with (Earning/Price + Growth rate) much lower than Government Bond rates. They may be the target of some PE take-over.

4. Company creditors should register their secure loans to the company. Reliance on the reputation of some 100 years old company names is not good enough for the present time. The current time is no time for inexperienced trade suppliers.

5. Company management should pay out all earning as dividends, declare its director payments and its assets to shareholders.

6. A company should not keep its assets hidden, should return surplus capital to shareholders to keep its Earning/Price higher than the (inflation adjusted) rate of Government Bonds. This will keep PE Asset Strippers well away.


4. Conclusions.

Private Equities are often blamed but the real villains are the directors who denied shareholders of their dividends and capital returns therefore drove shareprices to fractions of their true value.

Reference:

[1]. brick and mortar retail meltdown fueled by asset stripping details emerge in bankruptcy courts by wolf-richter,

https://straightlinelogic.com/2017/07/31/brick-and-mortar-retail-meltdown-fueled-by-asset-stripping-details-emerge-in-bankruptcy-courts-by-wolf-richter/, http://wolfstreet.com/2017/07/31/asset-stripping-pe-firms-fuels-brick-mortar-retail-meltdown/


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Living with a probable bubble market.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia)

#bubble, #market, #speculate, #bankrupt, 


Living with a probable bubble market.


Please note that this blog is only a sharing of life experience. This blog does NOT give  any FINANCIAL ADVICES.

Whether it is a house for living in or a government bond with positive (and hopefully inflation compensated, if you can still find them) interest for incomes, or some shares of a listed company on your local share markets for gambling thrill plus income for few years, you don’t want to buy that when it is priced in a bubble market.

The following shows how to spot the signs of a bubble market.

1. A bubble market can badly burn your business plan.

A bubble market is one where the prices are too high for any long term plan and those prices are predicted to fall down to level afforded by buyers.


If you buy too high in a bubble market you will not be able to pay bank interests on your business loans and suffer an asset loss when the bubble bursts. You yourself may go bankrupt.


Even for a speculator planning to sell to a greater fool, there is still a real chance that he will be the last one holding the speculated stock !


2. Common excuses from sellers/marketers in a bubble market. 

2a. “The economy is different this time”: 

The dotcom’s excuse that clicks are more important than incomes in its “New Economy” has been an expensive lesson to many speculators.

The FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE of economiccs is forever UNCHANGED: Money earned minus money spent is the left over in the cash box.

2b. The whole nation is asleep with only your seller and you staying awake to do the half baked financial analysis: 

This childish reasoning is not for reasonable investors.

2c. The seller is sharing privileged information with you:

If the information turns out to be false you will have no financial recourse to recover your money.

2d. A different plan is coming from the government this time and it will alter all financial planning ! 

However all government plans do follow the same method and the government has to uphold accountability. History should be a guide to those plans. 

All companies also want to avoid their plans revealed causing their unjustified expenses. Is your seller a good anticipator of their moves?


3. Characteristic of a bubble market. 

1. Price increases in a bubble market are not in line with historical records. The effects of any excuses given by sellers are still too small for the jump in prices.


2. The supplies and demands are one sided in a bubble market: The manipulators of the market have bought most available stocks before starting the game. 

They then increase the current purchase prices on the market to send up the value of their existing stocks to obtain even more loans from the banks. They then would off-load all their stocks at high price and realize their profits before any crash.


3. There are not a variety of sellers. This makes it easier for someone to manipulate the market.


4. The register of current owners has no increase in long term investors/businesses: Only speculators own the stocks and their prices are not justified by the benefit of ownership. All respectable investors have sold out their holdings when the prices have been high enough.

However, accessing the register may not be easy for ordinary investors.


5. If you can still comfortably operate your long term business in the market, facing all anticipated ups and downs, then that market definitely has NO BUBBLE to you and you may only just missed its cheapper period.  On the other hand, if you cannot operate your long term business in the market then that market IS A BUBBLE MARKET


4. Any bubble market still has its own long term buyers. 

Those people who just sold something into a bubble market can still immediately buy something else from it with that same amount of money. 

There are also investors who have to realize their capital gains every year and they will sell shares from one account while simultaneously buying back on another account. They do it to smooth out their yearly income taxes. 

For someone who has not sold anything into that bubble market he would be wise to GO FOR ANOTHER TYPE of investment and to come back to buy from that market only after the bubble has bursted. It may take a few year or even a very long while for the bubble to burst but by that time he would have made much more profit on the other type of investment.

5.  Conclusion.

If there is any suspicion that a market has become a bubble and you have not been involved in that market for a long while then you should GO FOR ANOTHER TYPE of investment while researching on it.

If the benefit of ownership is MUCH MORE than the payment of the purchase then the market is definitely not a bubble market for you, you just missed its cheaper period: You can still execute your purchase despite all talks about the any bubble bursting. 

References:

[1]. Greg Jericho,   http://www.theguardian.com, April 06, 2017.

[2]. Michael Janda, http://www.abc.net.au, May 29, 2017.

[3]. Jackson Stilesthenewdaily.com.au, June 02, 2017.

[4]. Lana Clementsthenewdaily.com.au, June 02, 2017.

[5]. Shane Hickeyhttp://www.theguardian.com, June 17, 2017.

[5]. Shane Hickeyhttp://www.theguardian.com, June 17, 2017.


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Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian notes with transparent stripes.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Detecting couterfeit currency, Australian notes with transparent stripes.

#Australian, #Canadian, #UK, #Euro, #counterfeit, #currency, #detect, #dollar, #fake, #money, #polymer, #transparent stripe, #hologram

There are many countries in the world using polymer currency notes. Australia, Canada, the EU, UK are among them. The newest notes are made of polymer with a transparent stripe in their middles. Australian notes have attained in Asia the reputation of being counterfeit resistant. 
This posting shows the most effective ways to distinguish between real and counterfeit 2nd series Australian polymer notes having transparent stripes.
You need no tool for most of these tests but you may need to carry a genuine $5AUS note with you all the time as your sample. The tools for some of the tests are a high power (x10) magnifying glass and a UV LED torch. 

1. The transparent middle with metalic hographic features.

Australian note with a transparent stripe

Figure 1:An Australian note with a transparent stripe.




Australian note with a transparent stripe on white background

Figure 2: An Australian note with transparent stripe placed against a white background.
Since Australia has licensed its previous technology, its older manufacturing technique has been accessed by the organized counterfeiters and many counterfeit polymer $50AUD have appeared, creating hard problems for Australian traders. This occured after the counterfeiters had spent years experimenting with Vietnamese polymer notes using licensed Aistralian technology. A 2nd series of polymer dollars is now issued. The new series is intended to be ahead of the technology of counterfeiters. The technology in the new series is also used in UK, EU and Canadian notes. Anti-couterfeit features of the new notes rely mostly on the technology of holography and microprinting on polymers. These features are carried moatly  by the transparent stripes of the notes. 

To use the hologram fearures, we neef to distinguish the front and the back sides of each note. The back side of the new $5AUD note has the drawing of the Australian Parliament House,

All holographic fearures are to be VIEWED from THE BACK SIDE:

The 7 branched Australian Federation Star on the top of the transparent strip appears like a raised solid star: 1. Only the rim of that 7 corner star stays on the transparent sheet as a solid silvery metal line. 2. The the center of this holographic star appears to float about 3mm above the base.

The bird next to the Federation Star appears to flap its wings when the angle of view changes slowly.
The domed house on the bottom of the transparent strip has 3 pictures:
1. A domed house and its frontal 4 piers, 2. A figure 5, 3. A figure of a backward 5

2. The holographic gold coloured stamp on the top right of the back side

Figure: The gold coloured stamp on the top right of the backside of an Australian note with transparent stripe.

The gold coloured stamp on the top right of the backside has an irridescent line moving up and down as if it was 3mm below the stamp, Looking at the bird shaped clear window on the other side of the stamp, the irridescent line appears as of it was 3mm above the bird.

3. Integral clear plastic window with raised Federation Star and fully fused ink

Figure: The welded raised printed transparent plastic window of an Australian note with transparent stripe.

The raised transparent plastic window welded onto the bottom left of the back side has fine raised prints of the Australian Federation Star.

The clear window cannot be detached from the note (The test is by scratching the edge of the clear windows with your fingernails). The white colour on the rim have been fused into the polymer and can only be scratched off but cannot be rubbed off (The test for non-fused colours is by scratching the colours on the clear windows with your fingernails.) ===> These are effective features against counterfeits.

===> Counterfeiters are currently making only stuck on windows but they have produced clear windows with metal strips to make counterfeit $100 Canadian notes. (see [5].).

4.Fluorescent figures

 Australian note with a transparent stripe under UV light

Figure: Fluorescent figures on the 5 AUD note with transparent stripe.

When placed under short wavelength UV light, the note has the following fluorescent figures. 

There are fluorescent figures of a green bird and a red tree on the bottom left of the front side. Only the bird has appeared in the above picture as the UV light used for taking that photo did not have short enough wavelength to show the red tree branch.

There are also figures of green year number in the center and green serial number on the left rim of the back side.

Note:
Counterfeiters have now used UV fluorescent ink [3].

5. Fine printing. 

Figure: Australian note with transparent stripe has fine printings on the steps of drawing of Parliament House. The characters are 0.3mm in height and are seen through a 30X magnification glass.



KarlMagn

Figure: A quality 10X magnifying glass for seeing fine features on currency notes.

There are fine printings on the 2nd series Australian polymer notes which compare well with the fine printing on the US cloth based notes. 

The characters of 0.3mm height in size are on the back side of the 5 AUD note, along the steps of the Parliament House.

===> You need to be familiar with these printings to check their quality.
Tools:
1. 10X magnifying glass. 2. You need to carry a $5 AUS note with you all the time to make non-arguable judgment on the print quality of notes.

6. Effective detection strategy.
The five features in the above order are in order of increasing difficulty. They are thus in the right order for an effective detection strategy. From my searches using the Internet, I have not found any case of counterfeit AUS dollars passing more than four of tests at such levels.
NOTES:
1. There are also UV torches sold to detect counterfeit currencies from most countries but high quality UV lights are required for this anti-counterfeit feature on many new notes. A high quality UV light source has UV of short wavelength and narrow spectrum with little visible light emitted. It is neither small nor cheap.

2. Iodine pens give yellow ink mark which darkens to brown on contact with starch from ordinary paper. These pens are sold to detect fake US dollars and will not work on polymer notes.

NOTES:
Counterfeiters have had decades of practice in counterfeiting Vietnamese polymer currency [3,4] (printed under technology licensed by Note Printing Australia), They have been operating with little risk of apprehension across the borders there and they are so confident that they openly advertised their counterfeits to ignorant greedy people at 30% of the values of genuine money.
They have now targeted the Australian polymer dollars. This is not a surprise as Australia is the first country to issue polymer currency (since 1988) but its currency notes are now lacking modern effective anti-counterfeit features such as holograms and tiny hidden printing. Five dollars notes are being replaced by these new ones with more modern design and gradually larger denomination notes will follow.

7. No more hidden image.

NOTE: 
There have been reports of counterfeits of Vietnamese polymer currency (made under license from Australia Note Printing) with crude hidden images [3].

8. No more creasing test on polymer base

The polymer for the 1st.series of Australian notes is soft, uncreasable but tough and is hard to tear at the edge. Counterfeit Australian dollars and counterfeit Vietnamese currency notes appearing in Vietnam are mostly made from non-tough materials [3].
Recovery and toughness tests are carried out by scrunching and by stretching the edge with your fingers . The note will spring back and will not be torn. ===>This test is good for 1st series Australian $50 notes, the genuine note will be replaced free of charge with a new one at any Australian bank if it is not that tough. Many counterfeit $50 notes have been detected by this test in the State of Queensland.

However the transparent stripe section and the hologram prints of the 2nd series are not that tough and that uncrunchable. 

The creasing test should not be applied to the new 2nd series notes.


9. Reducing your exposure to counterfeir currency when TRAVELING.

When traveling and using unfamiliar currency or when your senses are not acute, you can reduce your risk to counterfeit currency by adopting the following cautionary habits:

9.1. Do NOT EXPECT that you may get any CHANGE in countries like Vietnam,  let alone receiving changes in genuine notes !

They always think that you will spend like drunken sailors, have the duty to give them the changes as tips and never need to get back any change !

Hide all you money (even from your guides and local acquaintances) and only let them know that little part you have planned for dealing with them. This prevents any robbery being planned on you. Indeed, your local acquaintances may plan a robbery on you when you make a farewell party to them (I know this first hand) !

9.2. When traveling outside Australia, do NOT show or give a retailer any high value note unless they are READY to give you your changes in GENUINE NOTES.  This prevents them from grabbing your note then refuse to give you the change.

Do NOT let them pass your note around to ask for changes: The note may come back to you but substituted by a fake one along the way.

9.3. Carry a variety of high value notes so that you can always combine them to pay each of the purchase charges without receiving any change in high value notes. 

9.4 Count all your changes before going for the next purchase.

9..5. Only receive high value currency notes from registered banks (They are obliged to check currency notes when receiving and give you genuine usable notes).

9.6. Ask the banks to give you the combinations suitable for your trip until your next bank visit. 

9.7. When traveling outside Australia build up and keep a stack (about 50) of small value notes to save yourself from asking for changes from sellers. They will pretend not having any and asking you for tips ! Hide it from retailers as they will try to get it off you by any mean to corner you into not receiving changes!.

10. Tactile information.

There are raised marks on the new 5 AUD note to tell its value using only touches.
11. Unused very effective available 1st line of defence: Holograms.

hologramvnd

Figure 1: Looking at a LED torch through the anti-counterfeit hologram window of a Vietnamese polymer note reveals a hard to counterfeit pattern. es from left to right.

Note Printing Australia, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of Australia has provided Vietnamese money Printer with a hologram technology for anti-counterfeiting. The technology has been applied to the Vietnamese currency worth more than $2US. This hologram method currently appears to be the MOST EFFECTIVE first defense line against counterfeit notes.
The new 100 US dollar notes have a blue hologram bands with tiny pictures of the number 100 in checker pattern. When the viewed at varying angle from left to right these patterns smoothly move downward as if they float on the notes.
Canadian 20 dollar notes have both see through and metallic holograms. Hologram technology should be added to Australian notes.
12. Unused very effective available 2nd line of defence: Burried hidden small print or a security wire
secureline

.Figure : Small print is hidden inside the base material of a US currency note made of cloth material.

Small print buried inside the base material now replaces the old metallic wire buried inside the base material. It is seen when the note is hold up against a strong background light. The technology has been applied to Vietnamese notes, it would be an effective addition to Australian notes.
===> Counterfeiters have produced hidden figures but they are too crude for security small prints.

13. Unused very effective available 3rd line of defence: Iridescent ink for features.

iridvndusd
Figure: The gold coloured ink for the emblem of a coiled reptile (?) on a Vietnamese note is claimed to change to a grey metallic colour (left part of the composite photo) when viewed from a glancing angle under daylight. The technology has been shown applicable to polymer notes.

 On a cloth based $100 US note, the picture of a bell in a bottle can be made to clearly change from bronze to green by shining a strong light beam at normal and at glancing angle. The test is easy when you have a LED torch to shine a strong light beam onto the ink and change the beam angle from normal to glancing.
The technology has been applied to Vietnamese polymer notes with less effectiveness. The gold coloured ink for the emblem of a coiled reptile (?) on a Vietnamese note is claimed by Vietnamese State Bank to change to a grey metallic colour when viewed from a glancing angle under daylight. Although this anti-counterfeit feature does not seem to work well on Vietnamese polymer notes but could be made better if adopted on Australian notes.

14. Unused very effective available 4th line of defence: Magnetic ink.

magntest

Figure 1: The ink on any genuine US note is magnetic and is clearly seen attracted by a fridge magnet.

When holding the rectangular note vertically by grabbing its upper short side, you can easily see that the ink on the US dollar notes is attracted by a fridge magnet hold in the other hand.
Tool: You need a ceramic fridge magnet for this test.
It is desirable to have this technology added to polymer notes.

References.
[1]. Chris Vedelago, Cameron Houston, Australia flooded with fake $50 notes so good they fool banks, The Courier, http://www.thecourier.com.au/story/3757999/austral…, posted 28 Feb 2016.
[2]. Counterfeit Detection Guide, Could you spot a counterfeit banknote?, Reserve Bank of Australia, http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/counterfeit-detection…, accessed 20 July, 2016.
[3]. M.Anh, Cách nhận biết tiền giả 200.000 đồng, Báo VietNamNet,
http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/285822/cach-nha… posted 26/01/2016
[4]. Bắt khẩn cấp kẻ rao bán tiền giả trên Facebook, Báo VietNamNet, http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/287820/bat-kha…, posted 02/02/2016
[5]. Security Features, Bank of Canada, http://www.bankofcanada.ca/banknotes/bank-note-ser…, accessed 20 July 2016.
[6]. tonytran2015, Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/15/detecting-counterfeit-currency-us-dollars/ … posted on Jul 15, 2016.

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Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars, posted on July 15, 2016

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Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian dollars., posted on November 15, 2016

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 , Cashless bartering for survival, Federal Reserve Bank charges undeserved fees to Americans., A satirical guide to signs of an impending crash for small investorsYour fiat money (Part 2)Your fiat moneyBankers given outrageous incomes by their boardsSigns pointing to an impending crash for small investors,Bankers earn more than interest margin on secured loansCan most pension funds last? … all

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Finding North Direction and Time using Geological Features, plants and animals

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #time, #wind, #cloud, #tree, #find North by moss #moss, #bird, #roosting, #gecko, #chameleon, #croaking.

Finding North Direction and Time by Geological Features, plants and animals.

 There are many different ways to find North direction and time [1-9], the following methods are currently less known but have been very popular in the past.

1. Geological formation.

For example, if there is a distant mountain range on the West (example only) or a seashore on the East (example only) then any of them can be used as directional pointers.

The side of a nearby hill with more plant life is also the side illuminated by the morning Sun.

2. Winds.

A large geological formation such as a distant mountain range can create a year round daily winds of constant directions that can be used as directional indicators. 

The smell of a wind (salty smell, plant smell) can also reveal where it comes from (the sea, a forrest with a particular smell) and consequently its direction. 

Even the sounds in the wind can also reveal where it comes from and consequently its direction.

3. Permanent Cloud Formation.

Permanent Cloud Formation on top of geological features can tell earth dwellers their positions and directions. This method is used by islanders in the oceans.

4. The Growth of Trees and Mosses.

Trees and moss use sunlight to photo-synthesize their nutrients and body building substances. Their parts grow best with water, sunlight and warmth, We can use tree features to tell directions:  The sunny half of the trees has thicker veins, grains to support more leaves synthesizing nutrients. Trees bear more flowers and fruits on their sides lit by the morning Sun.

However, caution should be exercised as a permanent strong wind blowing the same way for the whole year may affect the growth of trees.

5. The Growth of Mosses.

 moss on west side of tree trunc

Figure: Moss growth on West side of tree trunc.

Little Moss on sunrise side of tree

Figure: East side of the same tree trunc.

Mosses use sunlight to photo-synthesize their nutrients and body building substances. Mosses and trees have evolved to have different diurnal cycles and their photo-syntheses are efficient at different times: Trees prefer and grow best in morning sunlight while mosses afternoon sunlight.

Mosses need Dampness and some right amount of Afternoon Sunlight (Photo-Synthesis by mosses is better in the afternoon). Therefore they grow on a damp tree trunc on the side that can receive afternoon sunlight. (However, too much afternoon sunlight can dry out Dampness and kill the moss!)  The difference between Eastern and Western growth of mossses is usually not profound but can be noticed. This can be seen from the above pictures.

Moss growth is also affected by prevailing winds which dry out tree truncs unevenly. Finding directions by Mosses should only be practiced as a last resort when all Celestial and compass methods cannot be applied and when there is certainly no permanent prevailing wind drying out the trunc unevenly.

4. Foraging by Birds

Birds want to have longer foraging time and warmth. That is why some types of birds even do yearly migration to the other terrestrial hemisphere.

At the first sight of sunlight in the morning, birds fly up and toward the Sun (eastwards or almost eastwards) . They forage in the fields there, eating young shoots that grew overnight, then fly home when they have been fully fed. Birds come back to their nests, checking them for unwanted invaders, do their droppings then sleep well before sunset time. (Only few nocturnal types of birds have good night vision).

 

5. Nesting by Birds

Birds build their nests on the warm side of a foliage.

In temperate zones, their nests point away from the poles. Bird dropping reveals the locations of bird nests relative to the host tree.

 

5. Chickens Roosting.

Chicken roosting and birds tweeting have been used as reliable time markers in the past, before watches are popularly available.

Country people in Vietnam used to start their days on the roosting of chickens at the first sight of a brightened horizon before dawn.

 

6. Geckos and chameleons croaking.

Geckos and chameleons see best and croak at noon in tropical countries. Their croaking is a fairly accurate noon signal (with 30 minutes accuracy).

References.

[1].  tonytran2015, Using GPS in off-grid situations., https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/06/using-gps-in-off-grid-situations/, posted December 6, 2016

[2]. tonytran2015, Selecting and using magnetic compasses, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/09/selecting-and-using-magnetic-compasses/, posted 09/7/2016.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/08/28/finding-north-and-time-by-stars/ , posted on August 28, 2015.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars in the tropics, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/finding-north-and-time-by-stars-in-the-tropics/, posted on May 25, 2016

[5]. tonytran2015, Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/09/using-polarized-light-to-locate-the-sun-hidden-behind-clouds/, posted on May 9, 2015

[6]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/19/finding-accurate-directions-using-a-watch/, posted May 19, 2015

[7]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/06/finding-directions-and-time-using-the-sun-and-a-dividing-compass/, posted on May 6, 2015.

[8]. Shadow stick navigation and graph of solar paths, posted August 19, 2016

[9]. Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver.

Relevant divider43.jpgSURVIVAL  blogs:

Finding accurate directions using a watch, posted on May 19, 2015

Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

Finding North and time with unclear sky. Posted on October 17, 2015

wpid-bstarsn20b.jpg , Navigating with an AM MW radio receiverThe Scorpius constellationQuick fire making using sunlight.,The Orion constellationRice as emergency food , Using GPS in off-grid situationsIdentifying moderately bright navigational starsSlide Sky-Map for displaying tropical stars,…all.

Click here to go to Divider63D400 Home Page (Navigation-Survival-How To-Money).

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The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 4: Scammers who entrap acquaintants into being guarantors for his loans.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia)

#parasite, #loan, #guarantors, 

The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 4: Scammers who entrap acquaintants into being guarantors for his loans.

In the Western societies, asset rich people are often preyed upon by scammers. After a family break up, an asset rich person may feel lonely and scammers will target him to befriend then to rob him of his assets.

1. A guarantor of loans is usually set up to carry the loan burden of the actual borrower.

The scammer/borrower pretended to be friendly to a lonely asset rich person. He then pretended to be hard working, responsible, wealthy and virtuous in front of that rich person.

One day the scammer S would ask the asset rich person R to be the GUARANTOR to his loan from a (crooked) banker B. The scammer S would tell the rich person R that he needs a loan from B for his business plan. He would claim that banker B is too rigid and too demanding and is not satisfied with the motgage of his huge asset. He would claim that banker B unnecessarily asked him to have many guarantors for a simple loan just because he has not been a long time client to that banker B.

The rich person R may then be willing to help a virtuous person starting his business career by becoming the guarantor of his loan. Asset rich person R would think that banker B will only bother him only in the unlikely event that the huge asset mortgaged by borrower S cannot settle the moderate loan from B to S.

2. The guarantors has been set up by the scammer/borrower and his crooked banker. 

Once the asset rich person R signed the paper to act as guarantor to the scammer/borrower he is done.

The scammer/borrower will not meet the loan repayment schedule. The crooked banker has granted him the loan knowing that his mortgaged asset has very little value but his guarantor has hige assets. The crooked banker C started issuing warrants of possession to liquidate the assets of the asset rich person R.

Yes, by laws, there is no difference between the borrower and his guarantor. The lender can recover his loan by any way easiest to him, that is starting with the asset rich person R!


3. The word loan guarantor used by lenders is misleading.

In a effect, the loan guarantor R mortgaged his assets to borrow from the lender B then he makes an unsecured loan of that amount of money to the borrower/scammer S on the same terms and conditions. Usually the borrower/scammer has little asset and want a free ride on the assets of his guarantor! 

In a effect, the loan guarantor risks his assets (that is equivalent to him paying insurance fees on loan default) for the borrower/scammer.

4. Loan guaranteeing is only to be used by parents to give early inheritance to their own children.

In a effect, the loan guarantor risks his assets (that is equivalent to him paying insurance fees on loan default) for his children to avoid giving outright inheritance to the children and being liable to taxes.


5. Avoiding being trapped.

You don’t want to lose your assets to scammers. So you have to:

5a. Keep secret your possession of assets to avoid being targeted.

5b. Avoid every false friendship from persons with unknown history, origin.

Don’t let anyone buy you coffee all the time without returning the favour. This prevents him from asking any favour from you !

5c. MAKE IT CLEAR to your acquaintants that you may help any of them looking for work but UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE YOU MAY TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY OF THEIR FINANCE.

Otherwise once you have taken only a single responsibility for their finance you will see their irresponsibilities grow like mushrooms overnight and there will also many more copies of such “friend” knocking on your door or ringing your phone !

5d. Practice saying NO firmly to any request to take over responsibility for someone else’s finance. Practice telling requesters that those who don’t want to swim deserve to sink !

 Similarly, do not enter into any contract to exchange your money for “friendship” or “love”.

5e. Avoid any contact with scammers or debt ridden or financially irresponsible people.



6. Main areas infested by this scam.

This scam is practiced where there are loan guaranteeing rules while scammers can intermingle with asset rich people. 

The scams are commonly found:


6a. In refugee population where people who had been rich and poor in their countries of origin intermingle.

6b. At tourist bars where tourists from rich countries intermingle with English speaking locals who are not rich.

6c. At single/divorced bars where scammers can target lonely, sad people.



7. Conclusion

This scam relies on a VAGUENESS of the meaning of the word guarantor. As it is almost like giving away the asset of the guarantor, THERE SHOULD HAVE BEEN (but sadly, there has not any) LEGISLATION requiring the guarantor to obtain legal advice from a competent lawyer before the guarantee contract can be signed.

Reference:

[1]. 

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Survival topics available in other languages. 

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #finding North, #French, #German, #Spanish, #language
Survival topics available in other languages.

Some of the survival topics here have been translated into other languages by other websites. The translations have been done by EXTERNAL sites. This site is NOT ASSOCIATED with those sites in anyway. Readers should excercise CAUTION when going to external sites as this website ACCEPTS ABSOLUTELY NO RESPONSIBILITY for their use of ANY EXTERNAL WEBSITES.

The links to external sites are given but readers have to make their own judgements and enter those sites AT THEIR OWN RISKS.

Francais/ French

1a. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie), Trouver vers le Nord et l’heure de toute étoile brillante, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-vers-le-nord-et-l-heure-de-toute-etoile-brillante.html,

1b. tonytran2015.Trouver la direction et le temps du Nord par une étoile brillante., http://www.nillesfm.com/trouver-la-direction-et-le-temps-du-nord-par-une-etoile-brillante/

2. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie)., Trouver Vers Le Nord Et L’heure Du Soleil À L’aide Des Mains Nues, par tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie)Même si sa montre s’arrête de fonctionner à un certain moment malheureux, une personne bien préparée pouvez toujours utiliser la méthode du bâton ombre pour travailler à la fois vers le Nord et le temps…, http://www.tubefr.com/  ..(the word Mains Nues offended censorship in French on the internet !)

3a. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver la direction nord et l’heure de la lune, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-la-direction-nord-et-l-heure-de-la-lune.html

3b. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver la direction du Nord et le temps de la Lune, http://www.nillesfm.com/trouver-la-direction-du-nord-et-le-temps-de-la-lune/

4. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver La Direction Du Nord Et Du Temps En Utilisant Les Fonctionnalités De Surface P3-Lune Lune, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-la-direction-du-nord-et-du-temps-en-utilisant-les-fonctionnalites-de-surface-p3-lune-lune.html,

5. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver la direction nord et l’heure de la lune, p2: à l’aide de la ligne de corne, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-la-direction-nord-et-l-heure-de-la-lune-p2-a-l-aide-de-la-ligne-de-corne.html

6. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver la direction nord et temps par stars, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-la-direction-nord-et-temps-par-stars.html

7. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver Le Nord Et Temps Par Étoiles Sous Les Tropiques, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-le-nord-et-temps-par-etoiles-sous-les-tropiques.html

8. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver Le Nord Avec Une Montre Plus Exactement, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-le-nord-avec-une-montre-plus-exactement.html

9. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver le nord avec une montre plus exactement p2, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-le-nord-avec-une-montre-plus-exactement-p2.html

10. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Mise en garde en concluant au nord par la ligne bi-secteur, 

11. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver Nord et temps avec ciel peu clair, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-nord-et-temps-avec-ciel-peu-clair.html

12. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Determination de la declinaison magnetique locale par un compas magnetique, http://www.tubefr.com/determination-de-la-declinaison-magnetique-locale-par-un-compas-magnetique.html

13. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). trouver le temps de lever du soleil avec la carte des etoiles, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-le-temps-de-lever-du-soleil-avec-la-carte-des-etoiles.html

14a. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Sélectionnant et en utilisant le compas magnétiques, http://www.tubefr.com/selectionnant-et-en-utilisant-le-compas-magnetiques.html

14b. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Sélection et utilisation de compas magnétiques, http://www.nillesfm.com/selection-et-utilisation-de-compas-magnetiques/

15. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Méfiez-vous des chiquenaudes périlleuses par compas magnétiques, http://www.tubefr.com/mefiez-vous-des-chiquenaudes-perilleuses-par-compas-magnetiques.html

16. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver le temps de lever du soleil avec la carte des étoiles, http://www.tubefr.com/trouver-le-temps-de-lever-du-soleil-avec-la-carte-des-etoiles.html

17. tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie). Trouver Le Temps De Coucher Du Soleil À Mains Nues

par tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australie)Il y a des moments quand vous n’avez pas de montre ou lorsqu’il n’est pas pratique à porter une montre (par exemple quand aller vous baigner dans la mer) et vous avez besoin de connaître l’heure du lever ou…..(the word Mains Nues offended censorship in French on the internet !)

18. Miroir pour faire feu à l’aide de la lumière du soleil., http://www.tubefr.com/miroir-pour-faire-feu-a-l-aide-de-la-lumiere-du-soleil.html

Deutsch/ German

1. Nördliche Richtung und Zeit von der Sonne mit bloßen Händen zu finden, http://www.gunook.com/nordliche-richtung-und-zeit-von-der-sonne-mit-blosen-handen-zu-finden/,

2. Finding North Richtung und Zeit von einem hellen Stern, http://www.gunook.com/finding-north-richtung-und-zeit-von-einem-hellen-stern/,

3. Finding North Richtung und Zeit vom Mond, http://www.gunook.com/finding-north-richtung-und-zeit-vom-mond/

4. Finding North Richtung und Zeit aus dem Mond, p2: mit Hornlinie, http://www.gunook.com/finding-north-richtung-und-zeit-aus-dem-mond-p2-mit-hornlinie/

5. Finding North Richtung und Zeit mit dem Mond p3- Moon Oberfläche Features, http://www.gunook.com/finding-north-richtung-und-zeit-mit-dem-mond-p3-moon-oberflache-features/

6. Suche nach Norden Richtung und Zeit von Sternen, http://www.gunook.com/suche-nach-norden-richtung-und-zeit-von-sternen/

6B. Nord und Zeit mit unklaren Himmel zu finden, http://www.gunook.com/nord-und-zeit-mit-unklaren-himmel-zu-finden/

7. Findet Nord und Zeit durch Sterne in den Tropen, http://www.gunook.com/findet-nord-und-zeit-durch-sterne-in-den-tropen/

8. Shadow Stick Navigation und Grafik von Solar Pfade, http://www.gunook.com/shadow-stick-navigation-und-grafik-von-solar-pfade/,

9. Auswahl und Verwendung von magnetischen Kompassen, http://www.gunook.com/auswahl-und-verwendung-von-magnetischen-kompassen/

10. Zeit zum Sonnenuntergang mit bloßen Händen finden, http://www.gunook.com/zeit-zum-sonnenuntergang-mit-blosen-handen-finden/

11. Suche nach Zeit zum Sonnenaufgang mit Sternenkarten, http://www.gunook.com/suche-nach-zeit-zum-sonnenaufgang-mit-sternenkarten/,

12. Finding North mit einer Uhr genauer, http://www.gunook.com/finding-north-mit-einer-uhr-genauer/

13. Finding North mit einer Uhr genauer p2, http://www.gunook.com/finding-north-mit-einer-uhr-genauer-p2/

14. 

Espanol/ Spanish

1. Búsqueda de dirección norte y tiempo del sol con las manos desnudas, http://www.askix.com/busqueda-de-direccion-norte-y-tiempo-del-sol-con-las-manos-desnudas.html

2. Encontrar la dirección del norte y el tiempo por cualquier estrella brillante.http://www.askix.com/encontrar-la-direccion-del-norte-y-el-tiempo-por-cualquier-estrella-brillante.html

3. Búsqueda De Dirección Norte Y Tiempo Por Las Estrellas, http://www.askix.com/busqueda-de-direccion-norte-y-tiempo-por-las-estrellas.html,  

4. Encontrar La Dirección Del Norte Y El Tiempo De La Luna,  http://www.askix.com/encontrar-la-direccion-del-norte-y-el-tiempo-de-la-luna.html

5. Encontrar la dirección del norte y el tiempo de la luna, p2: línea de cuerno, http://www.askix.com/encontrar-la-direccion-del-norte-y-el-tiempo-de-la-luna-p2-linea-de-cuerno.html

6. Encontrar la dirección del norte y tiempo utilizando las características superficiales del p3-Luna Luna, http://www.askix.com/encontrar-la-direccion-del-norte-y-tiempo-utilizando-las-caracteristicas-superficiales-del-p3-luna-luna.html,

7. Encontrar dirección, distancia y navegar a una base distante estrellas.http://www.askix.com/encontrar-direccion-distancia-y-navegar-a-una-base-distante-estrellas. html

8. Encontrar dirección, distancia y navegar a una base distante de estrellas, p.2: fina lectura de latitud. http://www.askix.com/encontrar-direccion-distancia-y-navegar-a-una-base-distante-de-estrellas-p-2-fina-lectura-de-latitud.html

9. Encontrar tiempo para la puesta de sol con las manos desnudas, http://www.askix.com/encontrar-tiempo-para-la-puesta-de-sol-con-las-manos-desnudas.html

10. Encontrar tiempo para amanecer con mapas de la estrella, http://www.askix.com/encontrar-tiempo-para-amanecer-con-mapas-de-la-estrella.html

11. Encontrar estrellas en el Trópico Norte y tiempo, http://www.askix.com/encontrar-estrellas-en-el-tropico-norte-y-tiempo.html

12. Encontrar al norte con un reloj más preciso, http://www.askix.com/encontrar-al-norte-con-un-reloj-mas-preciso.html

13. Búsqueda del norte con un reloj con mayor precisión p2, http://www.askix.com/busqueda-del-norte-con-un-reloj-con-mayor-precision-p2.html

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The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 3: Creators of debts from non-debt issues.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia)

#parasite, #service providers, #debt collectors, #privacy on accounts, #trigger happy

The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 3: Creators of debts from non-debt issues.


Because of the requirements in life we do have to deal with many service providers: Municipal governments, managements of multiple dwelling buildings, power, water providers, telephone, internet connection providers . . . 

Some sevice providers would really want to turn you into a debtor and this blog will reveal their tricks.

1. The service providers hide your accounts from you.

If you have been to Vietnam, you would have seen how easily people can find out how much they owe from each provider. You can literally ask how much you owe electricity and water providers when you provide them with the address of the house and your name. There is nothing to be ashame of if you use too much or too little of the services. Monthly electricity and water money collectors would loudly read out at your gate how much are your bills to be paid.


On the other hand, in Australia you have to register to each of the service providers and supply many passwords just to find out how much you have to pay. But usually they don’t tell you unless you let them deduct whatever they like from your account (Bpay conditions in Australia!) Then you have to wait for a letter telling you officially how much you owe them. 

This is under the EXCUSES of protecting your privacy while the governments do little to stop spying software spreading on the Internet!

You have to draw your own conclusion!

2. Service providers change the identification numbers of your current accounts to disrupt your programed payments. 

Service providers often change the identification numbers of your current accounts to disrupt your programed payments to them. 

Their hidden motive is to turn you into a debtor and make it hard for you to retrieve the payments wrongly paid into the obsolete (old, dis-used) accounts. Once you owe them debts (for not paying into the newly set up accounts) they will send debt collectors to you and charge you outrageous “collection expenses”

3. They charge excessive penalty if you cannot pay all your dues on time.

The bill arriving by post to your letter box usually allow you only 14 days to pay all amount owing including any surprise increases. You have to build up a fund in anticipation of the bill but they would not help you predict the amount owing even if you enquire!


The purpose is to create big debts out of small owings. 


The penalty is ways over (more than ten times) bank interest they would receive from the amount owing.


4. They are quick to call in debt collectors and charge you for the outrageous collector fees.

You have to draw your own conclusion!

I think that they would get a kick back from those debt collectors..

5. The collectors want to tow away your car but refuse to tell any intervener how much to pay and to whom to avoid it.

They want to charge you outrageous keeping fees on your car. 

They use the EXCUSES of privacy to stop any intervener to pay them on your behalf. This has actually happened to me while I was away but my neighbour has insisted to pay them on my behalf and they had to give up on trying to tow my car away under the excuse of “debt recovery”!

You have to draw your own conclusion on their real intention!

6. Service providers have become unfair and inhumane.

If you have been paying $100 in front for ten payment periods and now you are only $50 behind for one payment period they still call in a debt collectors to deal with you.

They should not do that considering the amount of bank interests they gained and lost on you payments.

You have to draw your own conclusion.

7. Service providers are abusing service users.

Citizens have to ask their legislative members to set limits on debt collector fees and to stop service providers from not informing customers of their account details and of being trigger happy with using debt collectors on those small debts resulting from their hiding of customer accounts.

To fight back such abuse, you should retain only a manageable small number of essential services and close down or use only prepaid accounts on all non-essential services like telephones, cable TVs…(even when prepaid services are more expensive than comparable post paid services).

8.  Conclusion.

So it can be summed up in 9 steps:

1. You are NEITHER in debts NOR in financial distress and CAN still comfortably pay your dues as they turn up.

2. They make it hard for you to follow your accounts.

3. They disrupt your programed periodic payments of your bills.

4. Due to disruptions some bills have not been paid. 

5. While bills have not been paid there is cash surplus and you thought that the surplus is due to your good management and fortunate smooth business running.

6. You mistakenly enjoyed spending that cash surplus.

7. You are in short of money when the bills come. Now you CANNOT pay all due bills.

8. They quickly call in debt collectors and charge you the outrageous “collection expenses”.

9. You have become ENSLAVED by debts to them. You have lost the game!


I suspect that the finance sections of service providers may have some interests in those “debt collectors” companies.

Just follow the money trails, and you will clearly see everything. 

Available evidence suggests that the scheme is operated by a certain group of people who operate in both the debt collection business and the finance sections of service providers.


References:

[1]. The Parasites of Western Economy, Part 1: Motorvehicle Insurance Scams., posted April 17, 2017.

[2]. 


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Finding North in the polar zones using Equatorial Stars and the Sun.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #finding North, #polar zone, #arctic zone, #Equatorial stars, #Sun.

Finding North in polar regions using Equatorial Stars and the Sun.

The general principles in Finding North still apply for each familiar method. However Finding North direction in polar regions has its own problems and it is not as simple as for temperate zones due to difficulties caused by steep magnetic lines not pointing to rotational poles, by the closeness of the upper Celestial pole to the zenith, by long extended day time, by aurora light, by aurora interference with radio wave receivers in GPS units.

When those familiar methods encounter problems the method of Finding North by Tropical stars and the Sun can still work and maintain its precision.

1. The two polar zones

The two polar zones  cover any area with absolute value of latitude higher than 66°33′. That is all their points are less than 23°27′ from one of the two poles. The Northern polar (arctic) zone covers parts of Greenland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, U.S. Alaska, Canada with many of their cities. The Southern polar (antarctic) zone covers parts of Antarctica continent (with Argentinian stations, UK Rother station, etc …).
The ratio of the lengths of Day versus Night varies with a yearly cycle on any point of the Earth. In Arctic zone, it reaches 0-100 for some period centered on Winter solstice (on 21 December ) when the Solar path is totally below the horizon. The ratio then varies from 1-99 to 99-1. It then reaches 100-0 for some other period centered on Summer solstice (on 21 June ) when the Solar path is totally above the horizon. The ratio then varies from 99-1 to 1-99 and reaches 0-100 again.
It is similar for Antarctic zone except for the 6 months time difference between the two polar zones.

2. Finding North by GPS.

Find North by a GPS

Figure: A GPS screen.

The easiest way to find North in a polar region is to use the GPS apps on smart phones or on purpose made GPS units.

GPS compass directions are calculated from the change in terrestrial coordinates when you move. The minimum movement distance is only about 5m. 

GPS compass directions are true directions and are different from and independent of magnetic compass directions.

However, GPS units may run out of battery, be non-operational during war times, be under heavy interference from polar aurora storms. A non-GPS back up method is still necessary.

3. Finding North by a magnetic compass.

Find North by a compass

Figure: A magnetic compass.

3a. The magnetic poles are not exactly at the North and South poles of the Earth. They are currently in Canada and near to New Zealand respectively. Users of magnetic compasses should know how to compensate for this.

3b. Magnetic lines are also nearly vertically inclined in polar regions making normal compasses sticky with their needles and they may have to be replaced by cruder magnetic rods hung on wire threaded through holes near to their mid-points.

3c. Aurora in the sky can also tell the position of the magnetic pole to inhabitants in its surrounding areas.

4. Finding North using Polaris.

Find North using Polar skymaps

Figure: The Northern and Southern Polar skymaps are represented by two circular discs here.

A real dipper versus Big and Little Dipper constellations

Figure: Photo of a real dipper. Inset: The Big Dipper and Little Dipper constellations.

4a. Polaris in the Little Dipper is right on the North Celestial pole. The North Celestial pole is in the Northern direction of all vertical plumb lines. If the star can be obscured by any plumb line then you eye is exactly on the South of the line. Near to the pole, Polaris is close to the upper extension of any vertical plumb line and it is hard to obscure it by some vertical plumb line.

4b. The altitude of Polaris is most easily read with a Bubble Sextant (Aircraft Sextant) or with a Theodelite (for higher accuracy). The direction with smallest value of altitude of Polaris is Northern direction.
The method is easily applicable at night time but Polaris cannot be seen during day time and during aurora storms.

5. Basis of finding North by Tropical stars.

Find North with Orion Equatorial stars

Figure: Panoramic view of the Celestial Equator and the Tropical band from the Arctic zone in December. Stars travel from Front Left to Front Right. The directions and Solar times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the picture are N(0hr)-E(06hr)-S(12hr)-W(18hr)-N(24hr).



5a. Any point on the Earth sees exactly half of the Celestial Equator above its horizon. The angle between the plane of this half circle and the horizontal one is equal to (90°- latitude).
The Celestial Equator is inclined to the ground and is below the horizon in the North direction in the Northern hemisphere.

5b. Equatorial stars such as the Central Belt Star of the Orion travel along this circle once every day. They rise and set exactly in the exact East and exact West directions respectively.

Find North with Scorpius Equatorial stars

Figure: Panoramic view of the Celestial Equator and the Tropical band from the Antarctic zone in June. Stars travel from Front Right to Front Left. The directions and Solar times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the picture are S(24hr)-W(18hr)-N(12hr)-E(06hr)-S(0hr).



5c. Any tropical star (any star which is no further than 23°27′ from the Celestial Equator) travels along one large (but not great) circle in the sky every day. The circle is “parallel” to the Celestial Equator.

5d. The elevation/altitude of the star varies daily with an amplitude equal to (90°-observer’s latitude) about its daily mean (which is nearly equal to its Declination multiplied by the sine of observer’s latitude)

5e. The North Souih line is the bisector of two directions pointing to any two positions having equal elevations of the same star. The common elevation can be conveniently chosen to be the mean of its 24hr values.

6. Solar trajectory on the Celestial Sphere

The Sun travels along one large (but not great) circle in the sky every day. The circle is “parallel” to the Celestial Equator. The circular Solar path drifts to its most Northern position at 23°27′ latitude on 21 June solstice then drifts to its most Southern position at 23°27′ latitude on 21 December.

At equinox times, the Sun is exactly on the Celestial Equator and rises and sets exactly like an equatorial star.

Locating the hidden Sun by polarized lightFigure: Locating the hidden Sun by polarized light from bright patches of the sky.

Knowing the trajectory of the Sun, you can locate it using polarizing sunglasses even when it is hidden and under the horizon (see ref. [5], Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view).

7. Measuring solar altitude with a stretched hand on an extended arm.

A hand with stretched out fingers hold on its extended arm sustains an angle of about 12 degrees and is a very convenient mean for measuring Solar elevation (altitude) angle in polar regions.

8. Variation of Solar altitude/elevation during the day.

Solar elevation/altitude varies daily with an amplitude equal to (90-latitude) about its daily mean (which is nearly equal to Solar Declination of the day multiplied by sine of local latitude).

You can tell where is the Sun on its daily cycle by measuring its altitude with a stretched hand on an extended arm.

As the Sun travels on a known wavy line its altitude gives both its compass direction and the corresponding time of the day.

The directions and times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the first panoramic picture (for Arctic regions) are N(0hr)-E(06hr)-S(12hr)-W(18hr)-N(24hr).

For Antarctic regions the directions and times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the second panoramic picture are S(24hr)-W(18hr)-N(12hr)-E(06hr)-S(0hr).

9. Time estimation from Solar altitude

Solar altitude may give a better time estimation near to Sunrise and Sunset.

The time is 6hr or 18hr when the altitude of the Sun crosses its mean value.

10. Distinguishing AM from PM

When using the Sun for navigation, it is important to know whether the Sun is ascending (AM) or descending (PM).

10a.A 24hr sub-dial on a clock face is certainly useful in telling AM and PM.

10b. Ambient air temperature after receiving daylight radiation is also usually higher in PM time than in AM time.

10c. There are different sets of stars in the sky for AM and PM in the night.

10d. Birds activities are different in AM and PM.

10e. Your biological clock (circadian rhythm) may help distinguishing AM and PM.

11. Finding North with a watch in a polar region

Finding North with a watch

Figures: Finding North with a watch for antartic and arctic zones. 

Finding North with a watch needs a modification: If you can travel to the nearest pole in 2hr, you have to remember that the 6-12 line on the watch points along the meridian line of your home city, not toward the Pole of the Earth. Indeed, you can travel around the pole but that 6-12 line keeps its direction along the meridian of your home city.

The watch face can be simply laid horizontally as in the original “Scout method” without generating any noticeable directional error.

Figure: A map of the arctic from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/rediscover/resources). All meridional lines converge at the pole.

12. Finding North with a divider in a polar region

solar declination from a watch face

Figure: Estimating Solar declination by drawing a watch face with a subdial.

Finding North by a divider

Figure: Finding North by a divider.

The divider method is still applicable for finding direction and time but requires accuracy in Solar declination and latitude angle for setting the divider.

A small plumb line hanging from the stem of the divider can improve the accuracy for its latitude angle setting.

With the above additional plumb line, the divider can measure the altitude of the Sun to give a good estimate of time.

13. Finding North with an AM Broadcast radio receiver in a polar region

AM radio usable for Finding North direction

Figure: An AM Broadcasting radio receiver wirh an internal ferrite rod antenna.

The method of using an AM radio receiver tuned to nearby broadcasting stations to find the directions to them ([8]) is useful near to cities in polar regions. It is not effected by low visibility from bad weather.

References.

[1].  tonytran2015, Using GPS in off-grid situations., https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/06/using-gps-in-off-grid-situations/, posted December 6, 2016

[2]. tonytran2015, Selecting and using magnetic compasses, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/09/selecting-and-using-magnetic-compasses/, posted 09/7/2016.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/08/28/finding-north-and-time-by-stars/ , posted on August 28, 2015.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars in the tropics, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/finding-north-and-time-by-stars-in-the-tropics/, posted on May 25, 2016

[5]. tonytran2015, Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/09/using-polarized-light-to-locate-the-sun-hidden-behind-clouds/, posted on May 9, 2015

[6]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/19/finding-accurate-directions-using-a-watch/, posted May 19, 2015

[7]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/06/finding-directions-and-time-using-the-sun-and-a-dividing-compass/, posted on May 6, 2015.

[8]. Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver.

[9]. https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/rediscover/resources.

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