Aboriginal communities successfully farmed oysters for thousands of years before colonisation. – Scientific Inquirer

Oyster fisheries managed by Indigenous communities in North America and Australia persisted successfully for more than 5,000 years prior to the arrival of European colonists, a paper in Nature Communications suggests. This research demonstrates that these fisheries were both managed and woven into cultural traditions, and that they could inform future fishery management.

Must Farm Bronze Age settlement – Wikipedia

Comment by tonytran2015: Iron swords, strategic advanced weapons have appeared 2800-3000 years ago but were still largely unknown outside Northern Europe. In 200BC Han China still banned the sale of cast-iron plow tips to NamYue (Nam-Viet in Vietnamese) for strategic reason.


Part of a Bronze Age settlement was uncovered at Must Farm quarry, at Whittlesey, near Peterborough, in Cambridgeshire, England. The site has been described as “Britain’s Pompeii” due to its relatively good condition, including the “best-preserved Bronze Age dwellings ever found” there, which all appear to have been abandoned suddenly following a catastrophic fire.[1] Research now suggests that the site was less than one year old at the time of destruction.[2][3]

…Archaeologists found two roundhouses, from about 1000–800 BCE, …

Iron and Bronze Age swords from Must Farm

For comparison: Famous Goujian sword, Hubei Provincial Museum, 500 BCE (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sword_of_Goujian)

Göbekli Tepe – Wikipedia

Comment by tonytran2015: Huge constructions built without drawings and written instructions/specifications. It is amazing.


Göbekli Tepe (Turkish: [gœbecˈli teˈpe],[2] “Potbelly Hill”;[3] known as Girê Mirazan or Xirabreşkê in Kurdish[4]) is a Neolithic archaeological site near the city of Şanlıurfa in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Dated to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, between 9500 and 8000 BCE, the site comprises a number of large circular
structures supported by massive stone pillars – the world’s oldest known
megaliths. Many of these pillars are richly decorated with abstract anthropomorphic details, clothing, and reliefs of wild animals, providing archaeologists rare insights into prehistoric religion and the particular iconography of the period. The 15 m (50 ft)-high, 8 ha (20 acres) tell also includes many smaller rectangular buildings, quarries, and stone-cut cisterns from the Neolithic, as well as some traces of activity from later periods.

Chinese Hongshan dragon may actually be a Viking dragon.

Chinese Hongshan dragon may actually be a Viking dragon

by tonytran2015.

1. The Hongshan dragon

China claims that its culture had invented the dragon symbols. Other Asian disputed that. The Wikipedia article Hongshan culture is often cited as a proof of an ancient dragon jade object has been found at the a site in Hongshan District, Chifeng (site was dated 4700BC-2900BC) currently belonging to China.

Hongshan culture, in wikipedia:

A study by Yinqiu Cui et al. from 2013 found that 63% of the
combined samples from various Hongshan archeological sites belonged to
the subclade N1 (xN1a, N1c) of the paternal haplogroup N-M231
and calculated N to have been the predominant haplogroup in the region
in the Neolithic period at 89%, its share gradually declining over time.[3] Today this haplogroup is most common in Finland, the Baltic states and among northern Siberian ethnicities, such as the Yakuts.

Other paternal haplogroups identified in the study were C and O3a (O3a3), both of which predominate among the present-day inhabitants.

Nelson et al. 2020 attempts to link the Hongshan culture to a “Transeurasian” linguistic context (see Altaic).[4]

Housed inside the Goddess Temple are clay figurines as large as three times the size of real-life humans.[7] The exceedingly large figurines are possibly deities, but for a religion not reflective in any other Chinese culture.[9]

Three individuals from the Miaozigou site belonged to haplogroup N1(xN1a, N1c), while the main lineage of Yellow River valley cultures is O3-M122. The existence of N1(xN1a, N1c) among the Miaozigou individuals could serve as evidence for the migration of some of the Hongshan people.[22]

However, the DNA tracing from the site points to a Viking origin !

There are also some strange things regarding the Goddess Temple


… Goddess Temple, due to the discovery of a clay female head with jade inlaid eyes.

Pig dragons and large, nude, clay figurines were also found at Niuheliang. Some of the figurines are up to three times the size of real-life humans; …

…there are in fact two varieties of animals represented in the jades. One is a boar …; the other is a bear, represented by round eyes and short perky ears

The bear has been widely worshipped in Northeast Asia, such as by the
Ainu in northern Japan, and in Siberia. Thus, Guo Dashun sees this site
in the wider Northeast Asian context.[1]

2. The Viking dragon

There are articles on Viking dragons. Beowulf is one. Its picture of the Viking dragon is

Photo credit: First published on Flickr. Original image by Jamie McCaffrey. Uploaded by , published on 27 April 2017 (https://www.worldhistory.org/image/6557/viking-boat-figurehead/).

Another interesting site is Does the story of beowolf explain the oseberg gjellestad and sutton hoo ships.

Vikings have place and limitations for their dragons in their mythology.

People took care to honor and placate the landvaettir. In the first law
of Iceland, Vikings were told to remove the dragon heads from their
ships when approaching land so they wouldn’t frighten the land spirits.

This should be contrasted with Chinese assignment of levitation power to their dragons. As Chinese myths are further from reality, there are reasons to suspect that Chinese adopted Viking dragons and added more myths on them.

The Viking dragons are large mythical sea serpents.

Figure: The Altuna Runestone (Altunastenen), a Viking Age memorial runestone with images from Norse mythology, created in 11th century, Sweden.
(Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication, author Gunnar Creutz)

Viking people are sea faring people. It is quite possible that they may have mistaken the dangerous meteorological water-spouts for their mythical dragon creatures. Thunders and waterspouts are positively correlated and in Viking mythology the God of Thunder slains the dragon.

Figure: Three waterspouts near The Hague, Neatherland. (Figure transferred to public domain by its author, Skatebiker at English Wikipedia).

The Chinese also associate their dragons with clouds.

3. The link to Viking culture and DNA’s.

The tracing of DNA at Hongshan site to Viking people is not surprising. Leif Erikson has had settlements in America around the years 1019-1024.

Much is to be found about Viking explorations and the spread of Viking culture and DNA’s (Viking-history-facts-myths) . Archaelogical finding in Ribe showed that the Viking Age in Europe may have started as early as 725 AD

Traveling to Chifeng on land along the arctic zone would not present much difficulty to the Vikings.

4. The late association of dragons to power in Chinese history and literature

There was a Chinese Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon (dated 475-221BC) with no exclusive reservation of the dragon symbol to royalty.

(This work is in the public domain).

The dragon boat on this ancient silk painting may only denote a funeral. Indeed, every of the many funerary coffin carrier vans in Saigon, South Vietnam, since at least 1950 to present do have two dragons, one on each side. The two dragons have the role of taking the soul of the deceased to heaven.

Figure: A coffin carrier van in HCM, Vietnam, 2021 (From https://en.dimatourmuine.vn/vietnamese-funerals-and-cemeteries/ ).

A study of description of the life of Chinese First Emperor Qin Shi Huang, Qinshihuang, (221BC-210BC) has not found any reference to dragons as symbols of power although there were a description of a mythical fish hindering his search for the Elixir of Life. (The picture https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Qinshihuang.jpg#mw-jump-to-license in the Wikipedia article is by some unknown artist of circa 1850, and is not a historical authorized drawing). Archaeological finds near his Mausoleum also have no article related to the mythical dragons while figures of horses, ducks, swans, cranes have been found. So the Chinese dragons only appeared after his time. My search on The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji (finished around 94BC), also yielded no dragon.

Even the Qin annals had not used any dragon in their description of his conception by his mother.

“For those who are curious, the Qin annals record that the Ying clan was founded by the son of a grand-daughter of the Emperor Zhuanxu. It seems that she gave birth to him after a dark bird dropped an egg to her
while she was weaving. She swallowed the egg, and the eventual result
was the reunification of China.


The story on Triệu Đà proclaiming to be Emperor of Nam-Viet only mentioned his use of four pheasant tails on his chariot as a sign of claiming to be an emperor. No dragon symbol were used at that time for the claim.

Dragons denoting power were only introduced during or before the Tang dynasty. Emperor Taizong of Tang (598-649AD) certainly has a dragon symbol on his gown. The story (written before the 16th century) of Tang Sanzang (or Tripikata with a Monkey God assistant) has a dragon transformed into Tripikata’s horse.

So the dragon symbols are associated with royalty in Chinese history and literature sometime between 94BC and 598AD.

It is not evident that later users of Chinese dragon symbols descended ideologically from the ancient users (4700BC -2900BC) from Hongshan District.

The problems in making Vietnamese writing using Latin alphabet

Every language has some peculiar parts and also can miss out totally some other parts. For examples, there are no strong r (French r) in English, while there are no English “th” consonant or English gliding dipthongs in French, etc…

For examples, there are no strong r (French r) in English, while there are no English “th” consonant or English gliding dipthongs in French, etc…

So it is obvious that it is hard to express French pronunciation in written English and vice-versa.

This is the problem (Portuguese trained?) Christian preachers and French colonial administrators encountered in Vietnam in their previous few centuries. The resulting Vietnamese writing system (in 1975) has been a magnificient solution to that difficult problem of transcription of a language which is not native to the transcription makers.

1. The Vietnamese language before Latin Alphabetization

The Vietnamese language is not any part of Chinese language. The Vietnamese race previously lived in the area on the South of Yangtze river.

Vietnamese and related races lost territories to the expansionist strategy of the “Han” Chinese race.

After the first Han Chinese occupation of Old Vietnam, Han Chinese General Mã-Viện ordered the melting of all cultural bronze drums of Old Vietnam. The question is why did the conquerors want to destroy the drums although they are not weapons. The few drums which survived that destruction order show that they have been casted with some raised Brahmic(?) scripts.

Figure: Chữ cổ trên trống đồng trưng bày ở đền Hùng.( https://kienthuc.net.vn/di-san/su-ton-tai-cua-nen-van-minh-khoa-dau-266446.html)

After that the Han Chinese rulers claimed that Old Vietnam had no writing and forced Vietnamese people to use Han Chinese writing. But Vietnamese language and Chinese language are different so Chữ Nôm was invented to record Vietnamese language.

Chữ Nôm is based on ideographic Chinese Han writing (colloquially and unjustifiably(?) known as Han writing but it was previously standardized and made used across the whole Qin Empire by Emperor Qin Sih Huang Di). Chữ Nôm each has two parts, one for the meaning in Han writing, another for the Han character with closest pronunciation.

Illustrative example:

Chu Nom 三 巴 (ba “three”) is composed of the pronunciation part 巴 (Sino-Vietnamese reading: ba) and the Chinese meaning part 三 “three”.

Its use is almost like writing a fictitious new word between angled brackets in the following line

<DOG, to be read as “ch-oooo-or” at higher pitch>

for an Englishman to read the sound of the Vietnamese word <chó> meaning Dog in English.

So it is evident that to read such fictitious written language, the person has to be well versed in English. That was also the difficulty with using Chữ Nôm: The person has to be well versed in Han language.

During the Second period of Independence from Chinese occupatiob (lasting from Vietnamese King Lê Lợi, AD 1428, to present), Vietnamese Emperor Quang Trung Hoang De decreed that all official documents had to be written in Chữ Nôm. However this requires officials to know Han language before they can write Chữ Nôm in official documents!

2. Latin Alphabetization of spoken Vietnamese.

Christianity spread to Vietnam in the 16 th century, with it there arose the need for phonetization of Vietnamese for teaching Christinity.

Alexander de Rhode continued with the alphabetization of Vietnamese using Latin alphabets by Portuguese Jesuits preacher Francisco de Pina (1585-1625, of Guarda of Portugal) and popularized its use. There is a street in Saigon named in honour of Alexander de Rhode.

The alphabetization was made in the 16 th Century but it is remarkably close to the current International Phonetic Alphabets of 2015.

3. The problems of writing Vietnamese pronunciation in Portuguese.

The expression of Vietnamese pronunciation by Portuguese writing naturally runs into the problem of mutual peculiar and missing parts. The Vietnamese alphabet comes from old Portuguese alphabet.
Written Vietnamese was Latinized by Poruguese in the 16th century. So we should expect some similarity between Vietnamese and Brazilian Portuguese which is close to Old Portuguese (https://linguapedia.info/en/language/por.html). Portuguese at the time of invention of Vietnamese Chử Quốc Ngữ had not included the (semi-vowel) letter j and Portuguese d is pronounced up to present time as an IPA /d/ quickly changing into an IPA/j/, that is an IPA /dj with a ligation on top/. So there must have been some substitutions and shufflings of characters available at the time of making Chử Quốc Ngữ.

The problem makes Vietnamese “D/d and Đ/đ” to have the phonetic values of

/j/ and /d/ in IPA.

At this present time of international phonetization (https://www.ipachart.com/), it would look simple for Vietnamese to use “J and D” instead of the established “D and Đ”. Or relying on the prevalence of English language, it may also be simple for Vietnamese to adopt “Y and D” instead of the established “D and Đ”. Either of the alternatives would simplify problems in international writing and in pronunciation.

4. The problems with Vietnamese phonetization via Chinese phonetization.

Some Vietnamese words come from Chinese phonetized words. Same problems can be expected from previous Chinese phonetization due to peculiar and missing parts.

The Han Chinese language has no accurate sound for the Western “r” whether it is soft r (as in English) or hard r (as in French).

So well known traceable geographical names become:

Original, Vietnamese via Chinese phonetization:

Roma, 羅馬,”La Mã”, (notice the replacement of R by L after Chinese phonetization);

Romania, 羅馬尼亞,”Lỗ-Mã-Ni”;

Rwanda, 盧旺達 (Lúwàngdá) !

Francaise, 富朗夏 ,”Phú-Lãng-Xa”;

France, 佛陵, “Phật-Lăng” (money unit);

Prussia, 普魯士 (Pǔlǔshì), “Phổ” (missing r);

Hungary, 洪家來,”Hun-Gia-Lợi”;

Bulgaria, 寶嘉來,”Bảo-Gia Lợi”,

America, 亞美利加, Á Mỹ Lợi Gia, or 美利坚, Mỹ Lợi Kiên (unstreesed r is replaced by l).

Siberia, 西巴萊 A, “Tây-Bá-Lợi-Á”.

Iran – Y Lang

Iraq – Y Lạp Khắc

Shangri La – Hương Cách Lý Lạp

Marocco – Ma Lặc Kha

Russia – Nga La Tư

Uruguay – Ô Lạp Khuê

brahmin, 婆羅門, “Bà-la-môn”

Radar, 雷達 (Léidá) !

When the “r” is the strongest part of the pronunciation, the originally Chinese phonetization turns it into the word “nhĩ”:

Turkey, 火雞,”Thổ-Nhĩ-Kỳ”;

Ireland, 愛爾蘭, “Ái-Nhĩ-Lan”;

Germany, 一行人 ,”Nhất-Nhĩ-Man”

(Note Deutsch became 德國, “Đức quốc”);

Uyguir, 維吾爾語(Wéiwú’ěr yǔ) ,”Duy-Ngô-Nhĩ“.

Short consonant becoming a full syllable

Spain, 西班牙, “Tây-Ban-Nha”, previously “Y-Pha-Nho”.

The challenge for anyone knowing/supporting Chữ Nôm is to transcribe then ask another user of Chữ Nôm to read back (from the transcription using Chữ Nôm) the following Vietnamese sentence:

“Rừng rặm rộn rã réo rắt.”

Do it. The accuracy or otherwise of the reading back and its understanding would be the show case of usefulness of Chữ Nôm.

5. Standing problems with Latin alphabetized Vietnamese.

Although the Latin alphabetized Vietnamese as described in a previous post is a magnificent solution to the transcription of spoken Vietnamese there are still a number of unsatisfactory issues:

5a/- “Đ/đ and D/d” in Vietnamese have uncommon pronunciations. That also causes difficulty in printing/typing and pronunciation for foreigners. “Đ/đ” in Vietnamese has pronunciation of “d” in English and in French.”D/d” in Vietnamese has pronunciation of semi-vowel “y” in English “yes” and in French “Il y a”.

5b/- “X/x and S/s” in Vietnamese have uncommon pronunciations. That causes difficulty in pronunciation for foreigners. “X/x” in Vietnamese has pronunciation of “s” in English and in French.”S/s” in Vietnamese has pronunciation of “sh” in English and “ch” in French.

5c/- Vietnamese have many more than 8 well known cardinal vowels . Signs and combined vowels are needed to represent them all.

5d/- Sometimes two latin vowel letters denote one Vietnamese vowel (like “ai, ia”) which can be pronunciated at length like single letter vowels, sometimes two vowel letters denote a gliding diphthong (like “oa, uy”). This may look inconsistent for foreign Latin alphabet users.

Danish Vikings invented silly walking for horses | VikingLifeBlog


The Vikings are known for many dubious deeds, but probably we have them to thank for modern horses’ most comfortable gaits such as tölt and pass.

The Nordic Vikings may have had delicate butts. In any case, they are responsible for the spread of a type of horse gait, which made a ride to the neighboring village much more comfortable for the rear.

The Vikings were targeted horse breeders with a focus on the horses’ gaits, and their favorite has probably been the Icelandic horse with the now famous gait – tölt.

This is one of the conclusions of a new, international DNA study.

The result surprises several researchers as it breaks with previous perceptions of human intervention in animal development.

“Until now, it has been widely accepted that targeted breeding of livestock is something that has emerged within the last few centuries. The study here is a clear proof that they already in the Viking Age selected special characteristics, according to which they actively bred the horses, “says Ph.D. Ernest Bailey from the University of Kentucky, who researches horses but did not participate in the study.

The study examined DNA samples from 90 horse skeletons dated from around the year 6000 BC and up to the year 1100.

In a horse from between the years 850 and 900 found in England, researchers have found a single mutation in the horse’s DNA, which over time would spread a large part of all the world’s horses and forever renew the riding experience of Vikings, knights and modern horse lovers.

The mutation led to a change in the part of the DNA that is responsible for controlling the horse’s legs in the desired order as it moves. More specifically, a gene called DMRT3, which the English researchers call ‘the gait keeper’ after the English word for gait – ‘gait’.

The DNA mutation thus added alternative gaits such as tölt to the horses’ repertoire. When horses tölt, the legs go like drumsticks, but the rider mysteriously sits almost still on the horse’s back.

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The History of Denmark

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Abacus – Wikipedia

Comment by tonytran2015: The abacus was invented in Mesopotamia.



The Sumerian abacus appeared between 2700–2300 BC. It held a table of successive columns which delimited the successive orders of magnitude of their sexagesimal (base 60) number system.[11]

Some scholars point to a character in Babylonian cuneiform that may have been derived from a representation of the abacus.[12] It is the belief of Old Babylonian[13] scholars, such as Ettore Carruccio, that Old Babylonians “may have used the abacus for the operations of addition and subtraction; however, this primitive device proved difficult to use for more complex calculations”.[14]


Greek historian Herodotus mentioned the abacus in Ancient Egypt. He wrote that the Egyptians manipulated the pebbles from right to left,
opposite in direction to the Greek left-to-right method. Archaeologists have found ancient disks of various sizes that are thought to have been
used as counters. However, wall depictions of this instrument are yet to be discovered.[15]


At around 600 BC, Persians first began to use the abacus, during the Achaemenid Empire.[16] Under the Parthian, Sassanian, and Iranian empires, scholars concentrated on exchanging knowledge and inventions with the countries around them – India, China, and the Roman Empire– which is how the abacus may have been exported to other countries.


An early photograph of the Salamis Tablet, 1899. The original is marble and is held by the National Museum of Epigraphy, in Athens.

The earliest archaeological evidence for the use of the Greek abacus dates to the 5th century BC.[17] Demosthenes (384 BC–322 BC) complained that the need to use pebbles for calculations was too difficult.[18][19] A play by Alexis from the 4th century BC mentions an abacus and pebbles for accounting, and both Diogenes and Polybius
use the abacus as a metaphor for human behavior, stating “that men that sometimes stood for more and sometimes for less” like the pebbles on an abacus.[19]
The Greek abacus was a table of wood or marble, pre-set with small counters in wood or metal for mathematical calculations. This Greek
abacus saw use in Achaemenid Persia, the Etruscan civilization, Ancient Rome, and the Western Christian world until the French Revolution.

A tablet found on the Greek island Salamis in 1846 AD (the Salamis Tablet) dates to 300 BC, making it the oldest counting board discovered so far. It is a slab of white marble 149 cm (59 in) in length, 75 cm (30 in)
wide, and 4.5 cm (2 in) thick, on which are 5 groups of markings. In the tablet’s center is a set of 5 parallel lines equally divided by a
vertical line, capped with a semicircle at the intersection of the bottom-most horizontal line and the single vertical line. Below these
lines is a wide space with a horizontal crack dividing it. Below this crack is another group of eleven parallel lines, again divided into two
sections by a line perpendicular to them, but with the semicircle at the
top of the intersection; the third, sixth and ninth of these lines are marked with a cross where they intersect with the vertical line.[20] Also from this time frame, the Darius Vase was unearthed in 1851. It was covered with pictures, including a “treasurer” holding a wax tablet in one hand while manipulating counters on a table with the other.[18]

The genomic origins of the Bronze Age Tarim Basin mummies | Nature



The identity of the earliest inhabitants of Xinjiang, in the heart of Inner Asia, and the languages that they spoke have long been debated and
remain contentious1. Here we present genomic data from 5 individuals dating to around 3000–2800 bc from the Dzungarian Basin and 13 individuals dating to around 2100–1700 bc
from the Tarim Basin, representing the earliest yet discovered human remains from North and South Xinjiang, respectively. We find that the Early Bronze Age Dzungarian individuals exhibit a predominantly Afanasievo ancestry with an additional local contribution, and the Early–Middle Bronze Age Tarim individuals contain only a local ancestry…

Footprints in the Sands of Time – muunyayo


West Hunter

The fossil footprints around an ancient lake in White Sands have been known for some time, but now we have what look to be perfectly respectable C-14 dates. They’re about 22 thousand years old, close to the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) and, as such clearly predate all existing evidence of human settlement of the New World (south of the glaciers, anyhow).

There were already hints: Amerindian populations in South America, mainly in Amazonia, carry a trace of a different genetic heritage. The existing population closest to that trace are the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, between India and Burma. Other populations such as Australian Aborigines and the inhabitants of New Guinea are also close. There is reason to believe that, until a few thousand years ago, all of Southeast Asia (including the islands) was occupied by related populations, known as Australo-Melanesians.

Here’s the key insight: the fact that the Andaman-like…