# Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #find true North, #true North, #find time, #Sun, #fingers,

Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

There are times when you neither have your watch nor can use any magnetic compass in the location but you want to find out the North-South directions and the time. This method is useful for those such difficult situations. Those situations may arise if you get lost without having your watch while traveling or if you find yourself without your watch while traveling inside a bus or a train. The method from this article gives both the true North direction and the local time from the position of the Sun using only your fingers.

# Required preparatory practices

### 1. Practice holding each of your hands in the three principal postures as illustrated in the following three figures.

Figures: Hand postures for Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice. Click on individual figure to enlarge.

If this practice cannot be carried out due to body deformity or illness (such as rheumatism) then some other method of finding North should be used instead.

The equinox posture is to be used around Mar 21st and Sep 23rd equinoxes while Summer and Winter Solstice postures are to be used around your local Summer and Winter solstices respectively.

The index finger in these postures is always aligned with the forearm and is to be kept in line with the line from the elbow to the tip of the index finger.

The angle between the index and the middle fingers should have value of:
90 degrees for Equinox posture
90-23= 67degrees for Winter Solstice posture and
90+23= 113 degrees for Summer Solstice posture. The above angles for Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice postures are equal to the angles between a clock hand pointing at 0 minutes and
19 minutes,
15 minutes,
11 minutes respectively. These angles are represented by angles between positions of watch hands on a watch face shown in two following figures.

Figure: Angles for hand postures at Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice are represented by angles between positions of watch hands on a watch face.

The long white hand pointing at 0 minute of the watch-face represents the direction of the left index finger of the user of this method while the long red hand represents the direction of his left middle finger.

The angle between the hands on each watch-face has been chosen to match the angle between the line to the Sun on the respective date and the line to the Celestial pole below the horizon. The angle between the red hand and the thick white hand pointing at 15 minutes represent the declination angle of the Sun (or its negative, depending on the observer being in the Southern or Northern terrestrial hemisphere). The variation of that angle through various dates of the year can be found in previous blogs [1,2].

Figure: Determining solar declination using a watch face. (The lines “SOLAR DECLINATION Its rough estimate is required for Fine Alignment of the watch” are to be ignored.)

### 2. Determine the slope to your Celestial pole.

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage. The cage rotates around the Celestial axis joining the its two points called the Celestial poles.

This slope from level ground surface is called the latitude of your place. Practice recognizing it.

Find a level ground. On a clear night set up a stick pointing from the ground to the Celestial pole. In the Northern hemisphere the Celestial pole has a star (Polaris) while in the Southern hemisphere it is only a point on the geometrical figure formed by circum-polar stars.

Figure: The Northern Celestial pole is the center of this map of the Northern sky.

Figure: The Southern Celestial pole is the center of this map of the Southern sky.

The angle between this pole and the ground is called the latitude of the location. The angle between the pole and a vertical plumb line is (90° – latitude). You need to practice recognizing this angle. (Knowing this angle also help you quickly find the Celestial pole from the stars).

### 3. Practice reading in degrees the angles between positions of hands on a clock face.

The angle between a hand pointing at 0 minute and another one pointing at
5 minutes is 30 degrees,
10 minutes is 60 degrees,
15 minutes is 90 degrees,
20 minutes is 120 degrees,
25 minutes is 150 degrees,
30 minutes is 180 degrees.

# 8 Steps for finding true North and time.

### 1. Determine the current season in the year to select the appropriate hand posture.

The equinox posture is to be used around Mar 21st and Sep 23rd equinoxes while Summer and Winter Solstice postures are to be used around your local Summer and Winter soltices respectively (Each posture can be used for its whole month and a solstice posture can also be used for two adjacent months.).

If the season in the year cannot be determined (as in the case of inhabitants living in artificial environment for years), use the hand posture for equinox days.

### 3. Determine if the time of the day is in the morning (the Sun is rising before noon) or in the afternoon (the Sun is setting after noon)

This step is needed to select the appropriate hand for the task.

### 4. Select and use only the appropriate hand for the task:

4a. Northern hemisphere: LEFT hand in the morning THEN RIGHT hand in the afternoon.
4b.Southern hemisphere:RIGHT hand in the morning THEN LEFT hand in the afternoon.

### 6. Twist the forearm and hand until the middle finger makes with the level ground an angle equal to the latitude angle.

This is illustrated in the two figures.

Figure: Finding the meridian (true North-South) line with the left hand.

Figure: Finding the meridian (true North-South) line with the right hand.

### 7. The projection of the middle finger onto the ground now points exactly away from the terrestrial pole of your hemisphere.

The middle finger now points to the Celestial pole below the horizon, in other terms it points directly away from the visible Celestial pole in the sky.

### 8. Looking along that direction pointed by the middle finger and imagining a 24-hour clock dial attached to that axis give a natural clock giving time in the day.

Figure: The line CB to the Sun form the hour hand of a 24 hour clock. This clock face is for Northern hemisphere. In Northern hemisphere the hand sweeps clockwise while in Southern hemisphere it sweeps anticlockwise.

The time given by the natural clock is the local time which has noon when the Sun is highest in the sky. Local time differs from the zonal time selected by the government.

9. Around noon time, either left or right hand can be used. The terrestrial North South line is determined with least accuracy around noon time.

10. On the terrestrial equator, either selection of 4a or 4b can be applied. The middle finger of the selection 4a points at true terrestrial South while that of 4b points at true terrestrial North.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015.

RELATED SURVIVAL BLOGS

Finding accurate directions using a watch, posted on May 19, 2015 . This is my novel technique to replace the horizontal watch method.

Finding North direction and time accurately from the horn line of the Moon. Posted on August 12, 2015. This is my novel technique.

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

# Sonic weapons are real

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

#sonic weapon, #secret weapon, #US, #embassy,

Sonic weapons are real.

#### 1. Theory

When you send to sound beams at 200,000Hz and 203,000Hz onto an object, that object WILL hear the beat frequency of 203,000Hz – 200,000Hz = 3,000Hz.
This is caused by the non-linear response of most materials, including the earlobes of the unsuspected victims.

The principle is familiar to radio amateurs and is known as demodulation using ring diodes to produce Intermediate Frequency from higher received and local oscillator’s frequencies.

#### 2. Why should an attacker use two ultrasound beams.

Using two beams of ultrasounds avoids the appearance of obvious assault by loud noises, which is illegal in most country. Each ultrasound beam is also undetectable by ordinary people!

Furthermore, each beam is highly directional, with a wave length of only 300÷200,000 = 1.5mm.

The ears of the victim is the non-linear medium producing the beat frequency right inside the ears of the victim.

#### 3. Possible counter-measures.

Earmuffs equipped with ultrasound sound meters may be effective.

References

# Finding North from unclear sky around July.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Vega, #Deneb, #Altair, #July, #unclear sky

Around July there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Vega, Altair and Deneb. These three stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.
To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its July marking (at 4 o’clock position) on its rim pointing towards the ground.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for July on the rim (at 4 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of three bright stars Vega, Deneb, Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Vega and Deneb go highest around 24 hr.

The bisector of the line Vega Deneb goes through the Northern Celestial pole. The pole is almost of equal distances of 45 degrees from each of them.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its July marking (at 8 o’clock position) on its rim pointing towards the ground.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for July on the rim (at 8 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see the Southern Cross Pointers highest around 18 hr, then Antares around 20 hr. Achernar is seen rising before Sunrise. The midpoint between the Pointers and Achernar is almost the Southern Celestial pole.

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

A observer in the tropic should already know the very bright star Bootes and the bright star Antares in the Scorpius constellation used in April.

Figure 1: Photograph of Spica (near the bottom edge), Bootes Arcturus (near the right edge) and Antares (1/8 of the width from the left edge) forming a triangle. Celestial North is at 01 o’clock position (30 degree clockwise from vertical) in this photo. There is a very bright planet (1/2 from left edge, 1/3 from bottom) traveling on the Ecliptic in this photo.

Figure 2: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

On the trailing side of Bootes Arcturus and Antares, (click the above Mercator map for details) there is a bright star of equal distances of 60 degrees to both of them. This star is Altair, which is as bright as Antares.

Following the line Antares to Bootes Arcturus, turning anti-clockwise by 90 degrees at Bootes Arcturus and traveling for 60 degrees takes us to Vega, which is as bright as Bootes Arcturus. The line (Antares, Arcturus) is nearly at right angle to the almost straight line (Spica, Arcturus, Vega).

The line (Bootes Arcturus, Antares) is nearly parallel to the line (Vega, Altair) which lie slightly nearer to Bootes Arcturus.

Vega is as bright as Bootes Arcturus while Altair is as bright as Antares.

Figure 3: Polar Inversion map of Northern Celestial 3/4 sphere. The line (Vega, Altair) is 30 degrees long and is nearly parallel to the line (Bootes Arcturus, Antares) which is 60 degrees long.

Rotate the line (Altair, Vega) about Altair by 10 degrees counter-clockwise give the great circle through the two Celestial poles. Northern Celestial pole is nearer to Vega and is 80 degrees from Altair. Southern Celestial pole is nearer to Altair and is 100 degrees from Altair.

Trailing 2 hour behind Vega is the bright star Deneb (see the Mercator star-map). (Vega, Altair, Deneb) is known as the Summer Triangle. The bisector of the angle Vega, Altair, Deneb points to the Northern Celestial pole.

Figure 4: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.

5. Visibility of the stars.

Altair is visible for nearly the whole night in July. The Summer Triangle is visible for nearly the whole night in July. Click on the Mercator map for details.

6. CAUTION with planets
The Moon and planets travel on the Ecliptic. Observers should take care not to mistake any planet for Antares in the Scorpius constellation.

A planet is always brighter than any star, including Sirius, moves from night to night, and does not twinkle in clear sky.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around April, posted on 2018, April 12.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[4]. , posted on

[5]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[6].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

RELATED SURVIVAL BLOGS

Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015. <<<—This is my MOST USEFUL novel technique.

Finding North direction and time accurately from the horn line of the Moon. Posted on August 12, 2015. This is my novel technique.

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

# Finding North from unclear sky around April.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Spica, #Bootes Arcturus, #Antares, #April, #unclear sky
Around April there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Spica, Bootes Arcturus and Antares. These three stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.
To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure 1: Stars in the Northern hemisphere rotates anticlockwise around the North pole.

An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of three bright stars Vega, Deneb, Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Big Dipper constellation goes highest around 22 hr.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure 1: Stars in the sothern hemisphere rotates anticlockwise around the North pole.

An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see the Southern Cross Pointers for the whole night.

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

Figure 1: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

An Earth bound observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone can identify the forward swept broom (or a duck foot (?), a bird foot (?) or a tree with 3 upper branches (?)). formed by the brightest star Sirius and four surrounding bright stars Canopus, Orion-Rigel, Betelgeuse and Procyon. The line Canopus to Sirius make the 35 degrees long broomstick handle and three lines from Sirius to each of the other three stars form three branches of the forward swept broom head (see the star maps). Sirius to Procyon is the trailing branch of the (three branched) broom head.
Doubling the travel from Sirius to Procyon takes us to another bright star named Pollux.

Two thirds of the line from Procyon to Pollux is a point on the Ecliptic (the great circle containing the.Sun and all planets). Turning anticlockwise 100 degrees at this point and traveling by a distance of 40 degrees takes us to a less bright star Leo Regulus. Keeping the direction from that two thirds point to Leo Regulus and travel for another 50 degrees takes us to a brighter star Spica. Spica is 90 degree in distance from the that two thirds point. (Observers from the Southern Hemisphere may also see that the great circle arc going through the long axis of the Southern Cross goes by 50 degrees to get very close to Spica. Draw the line from Southern Cross to Spica and then turns 30 degrees anticlockwise and continue for another 30 degrees to reach Bootes Arcturus.)

Turning clockwise by 90 degrees at Spica to leave the Ecliptic and traveling by 30 degrees takes us to a much brighter unmistakable star Bootes Arcturus.

Instead of turning right toward Bootes Arcturus, traveling along the Ecliptic for another 50 degrees take us to a bright star Antares in the Scorpius (Observers from the Southern Hemisphere may also see that Antares is 45 degrees clockwise and 45 degrees distance from the direction of dim Pointer to bright Pointer.).

Figure: Antares is the bright star in the Scorpius constellation which has the shape of a declawed scorpion. Two bright objects on the third top of the photo are planets traveling on the Ecliptic. Northern Celestial pole is from the top left (11 o’clock) direction of the photo.

The stars Spica, Bootes Arcturus, Antares form an arrow-head pointing North.

The midpoint of the great circle arc from Spica to Bootes Arcturus is almost on the Celestial equator. Rotating this arc clockwise by 30 degrees makes its extension goes through both Celestial poles. Northern Celestial pole is 90 degrees from the midpoint and on the side of Bootes Arcturus. Southern Celestial pole is 90 degrees from the midpoint and on the side of Spica.

The internal bisector of the angle formed by (Spica, Bootes Arcturus, Antares) points to the Southern Celestial pole while its rearward extension points to the Northern Celestial pole.

Figure: Photograph of Spica (near the bottom edge), Bootes Arcturus (near the right edge) and Antares (1/8 of the width from the left edge) forming a triangle. Celestial North is at 01 o’clock position (30 degree clockwise from vertical) in this photo. There is a very bright planet (1/2 from left edge, 1/3 from bottom) traveling on the Ecliptic in this photo.

Figure 2: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.

5. Visibility of the stars.
Orion constellation, Sirius and its surrounding stars are visible after Sunset. Spica, Bootes Arcturus and Antares are all visible for nearly the whole night in April.

Figure 1: Azimuth and elevation angles of stars for equatorial observers.

Figure 2: Azimuth and elevation angles of stars for observers on 30 degrees North latitude.

Figure 3: Azimuth and elevation angles of stars for observers on 30 degrees South latitude.

6. CAUTION with planets
The Moon and planets travel on the Ecliptic. Observers should take care not to mistake any planet for a navigational bright star.
A planet is always brighter than any star, including Sirius, moves from night to night, and does not twinkle in clear sky.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[3]. , posted on

[4]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[5].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

RELATED SURVIVAL BLOGS

Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015. <<<—This is my MOST USEFUL novel technique.

Finding North direction and time accurately from the horn line of the Moon. Posted on August 12, 2015. This is my novel technique.

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015 .

# Lunisolar Calendars track the rhythm of nature better

Lunisolar Calendars track the rhythm of nature better.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#lunisolar calendar, #lunar calendar, #solar term, #tiết, #leap month, #solstice, #moon phase,

When traveling to Asia, Westerners are often surprised that many locals still use Lunar Calendars. The mystery will dissolve when they know more about Lunar Calendars.

In terms of survival, East Asian Lunar Calendars offer many advantages which keep them in use in East Asia and maybe in some other countries as well.

1. The East Asian Lunisolar Calendars.

The East Asian Lunisolar Calendars are based on Lunar Months and on Seasons.

They have the following characteristics:

1. A new month begins with the appearance of a New Moon any time during the WHOLE night of of the first day of the new month.

Note that a Lunar “day and night” period in East Asian Lunar Calendar just mean exactly that. It does not means from midnight to the following midnight. A Lunar “day and night” starts on a Sunrise and end at the next Sunrise.

Figure 1: Phase of the Moon. A new Moon is the Moon with a thin white crescent on its leading edge (top right corner of the picture) which is first visible  right after sunset on the Western horizon

2. The New Year of East Asian Lunar Calendar has been traditionally celebrated only from the First day (after Sunrise) of the New Year. The Midnight Firecracker Celebration on the last night of the expiring year is a hybrid concept of the beginning of a New Year.

The Firecracker custom by Chinese was traditionally used to keep some “Evil dragon” away from people’s houses during the change of guards in Heaven and at family Altars.

3. The post-solstice Month following a Winter Solstice (December 21st) is called the Final Month (“tháng Chạp” in Vietnamese meaning Preservation (?) Month).

4. The Month following the post-Solstice Month is ALWAYS a First Month of the next year (“tháng Chánh” in Chinese Vietnamese meaning Principal Month, “tháng Giêng” in Vietnamese).

5. Months are given names like Month 1 (First or Principal Month), Month 2, …, Month 11, Final Month (post-Solstice and last month).

6. As the beginnings of days and Lunar months depend on the longitude of an observer, the beginning of days, months may differ between countries seperated by few degrees in longitude. The Lunisolar Calendars of China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam may have their New Years differing by more than 28 days.

7. As Lunar months are only about 29.5 days long, every few (nearly 3) years there will be one Lunar year with 13 Lunar months. The additional month is called a Leap Month for that year.

8. As East Asian lives have been traditionally based on agriculture, the Lunar Calendars must help people track seasons. The Lunar months are named so that each denotes a particular time of the seasons.

For examples:

There is a folk phrase in Vietnamese “Tháng Năm (5) chưa nằm đã sáng, Tháng Mười (10) chưa cười đã tối.” It means 5th Months have shortest nights while 10th Months have shortest days.

One of planters’ songs about planting times for various crops in Vietnam is “Tháng chạp là tháng trồng khoai, Tháng giêng trồng đậu, tháng hai trồng cà. Tháng ba cày vỡ ruộng ra, Tháng tư làm mạ mưa sa đầy đồng. Ai ai cùng vợ cùng chồng, Chồng cày vợ cấy, trong lòng vui thay. Tháng năm gặt hái đã xong, Nhờ trời một mẫu năm nong thóc đầy…”

9. To preserve the characters of months, the leap month in any year with 13 Lunar months is inserted between month 1 and month 11 such that seasonal characters of other months are preserved.

10. There are 24 nearly equally spaced, designated (by East Asian Astronomers) marker points on the Ecliptic called “Solar terms” in “Chinese English”. The position of the Sun relative to these markers tell its progress along the Ecliptic and the season in the year. Any leap month is inserted such that the Sun does not go far from its expected positions for the month [6].

Figure: The wavy line in this Mercator map of the sky is the Ecliptic. The Sun travels on it. There are 24 marker points on this line used by East Asian Astronomers to quantify the position of the Sun on this line.

The time the Sun goes past any marker is called a “tiết” in Old Chinese-Vietnamese; “tiết” means a beginning of any one of 24 sub-seasons in the exact solar year (Each traditional astronomically based season is further subdivided into six sub-seasons by East Asian Astronomers.). There are 24 sub-seasons of roughly equal lengths and their 24 “tiết”s with 24 individual names:

Solar R.A. = 270°冬至 dōngzhì Đông chí Dec 22 11th winter maximum (solstice). DATE for ANCHORING 11th month. This anchoring may make months 11 in neighbouring countries differ by nearly 28 days.

Solar R.A. = 285°小寒 xiǎohán Tiểu hàn Jan 6, bit frigid

Solar R.A. = 300°大寒 dàhán Đại hàn Jan 20 most frigid, roughly the middle of 12th month,

Solar R.A. = 315°立春 lìchūn Lập xuân Feb 4  spring begins, close to the beginning of CONVENTIONAL 1st month, There is NO LEAP month from 11th to 1st month.

Solar R.A. = 330°雨水 yǔshuǐ Vũ thủy Feb 19, more rain than snow, LEAP month may be inserted after 1st monrh and before 11th month.

Solar R.A. = 345°驚蟄 (惊蛰)jīngzhé Kinh trập啓蟄 Mar 6, hibernating insects awaken,

Solar R.A. = 0°春分 chūnfēn Xuân phân Mar 21 2nd month midpoint, spring center (equinox) , Target date for middle of 2nd month,

Solar R.A. = 15°清明 qīngmíng Thanh minh Apr 5, clear and bright

Solar R.A. = 30°穀雨 (谷雨) gǔyǔ Cốc vũ Apr 20 3rd month midpoint wheat rain , Target date for middle of 3rd month,

Solar R.A. = 45°立夏 lìxià Lập hạ May 6, summer begins

Solar R.A. = 60°小滿 xiǎomǎnTiểu mãn小満 May 21 creatures plentiful , Target date for middle of 4th month,

Solar R.A. = 75°芒種 (芒种) mángzhòng Mang chủng Jun 6, seeding millet

Solar R.A. = 90°夏至 xiàzhì Hạ chí Jun 21 summer maximum (solstice) , Target date for middle of 5th month,

Solar R.A. = 105°小暑 xiǎoshǔ Tiểu thử Jul 7, bit sweltering

Solar R.A. = 120°大暑 dàshǔ Đại thử Jul 23 most sweltering , Target date for middle of 6th month,

Solar R.A. = 135°立秋 lìqiū Lập thu Aug 8 autumn begins

Solar R.A. = 150°處暑 (处暑)chǔshǔ Xử thử Aug 23 heat withdraws , Target date for middle of 7th month,

Solar R.A. = 165°白露 báilù白露 Bạch lộ Sep 8 dew

Solar R.A. = 180°秋分 qiūfēn Thu phân Sep 23 autumn center (equinox) , Target date for middle of 8th month,

Solar R.A. = 195°寒露 hánlù Hàn lộ Oct 8 cold dew

Solar R.A. = 210°霜降 shuāngjiàng Sương giáng, Oct 23 frost , Target date for middle of 9th month,

Solar R.A. = 225°立冬 lìdōng Lập đông Nov 7 winter begins

Solar R.A. = 240°小雪   xiǎoxuě Tiểu tuyết Nov 22 snows a bit , Target date for middle of 10th month,

Solar R.A. = 255°大雪 dàxuě Đại tuyết Dec 7 snows a lot

The leap month is inserted so that months with the same names mostly contain the same solar-determined sub-seasons over years.

1. The lengths of months do not follow any simple pattern.

2. Calendar users have to rely on central astronomers to know when is a leap year and which month will be the leap month for that leap year.

3. As the beginnings of days and Lunar months depend on the longitude of an observer, the beginning of days, months may differ between countries separated by few degrees in longitude. The Lunisolar Calendars of China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam may have their New Years differing by more than 28 days.

4. The number of days between any two given dates are hard to calculate.

5. Consequently it is difficult for house builders or any contractors to work out the number of working days in any project. However, East Asians are often concerned with weekly matters (how long is the harvest period, etc..,) or with decade long matters (when and where will their children live, migrate to!).

1. The day in the calendar month is displayed by the Moon. Some Vietnamese can tell the day without any delay just by looking at the Moon.

2. Market days and Buddhist fasting and festival days are always on the 15th day of the Lunar months. There is plenty of Moonlight on those days.

3. The tides are strongest on full Moon and No-Moon days. This makes easy planning with water transportation on rivers and canals. (Wedding celebrations in remote areas in Southern Vietnam are still carried out with great timing precision so that guests can arrive and return by boats).

4. Any two distant parties may agree to conveniently meet each other halfway at each full-Moon.

5. Before full Moon, the lit side of a Non-full Moon always points Westwards. After full Moon, it points Eastwards. So the Calendars help with nighttime navigating.

6. Rodents and insects are exposed to their predators (such as night-owls, cats, snakes…) at night in full Moon. So their nighttime forage depends on Moon phase and days in the Lunar months.

7. Seeds and succulent seedlings are exposed to rodents and insects in Moon lit nights. Planters (including Asian and European) have known it is best to count days from full Moon to plant various seeds.

8. Water creatures like crabs do get fattened or skinny depending on Moon phase (probably due to their feeding and mating habits). Vietnamese wisdom advises against buying crabs for meals after full Moon.

4. Conclusion.

Lunisolar calendars track the rhythm of nature better. People in East Asia may retain the calendars as their lives are more dependent on this rhythm.

References.

[3]. Sima Qian, Records of History by the grand historian (translated by Burton Watson), Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty I (Rev. Ed.) and Han Dynasty II (Rev. Ed.), the Res. Cent. for Transl. The Chinese Univ. of Hon Kong and Colubia Univ. Press, Hong Kong and New York, 1961. Han Dynasty II p.38 showed that in 113BC, month 11 has the solstice.

[4]. Helmer Aslaksen, The Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar, http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/calendar/chinese.shtml, accessed 19 Jan 2017.

[5]. Ho Ngoc Duc, Thuat toan am lich (in Vietnamese), https://www.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/~duc/amlich/calrules.html, accessed 19 Jan 2017.
[6]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_term

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# Finding North from unclear sky around New Year.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Sirius, #Canopus, #Orion-Rigel, #Capella, #New Year, #unclear sky
Around New Year there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Sirius, Canopus, Orion-Rigel and Capella. These four stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.

To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hours. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole.

Figure: Photo of the Orion constellation (Photo added 2018 May 09). Northern Celestial pole is from the top direction of this photo.

An Earth bound observer in Northern hemisphere or on the tropical zone can identify the Orion constellation around New Year. The front foot of the hunter represented by this constellation is the bright star Orion-Rigel. The trailing shoulder of the hunter is the bright star Betelgeuse.

The brightest star in the sky is Sirius. The great circle arc Sirius to Capella is 70 degrees long with Betelgeuse being close to its midpoint.
Extending the great circle arc Orion-Rigel to Capella to 100 degrees long bring us practically to the Celestial North pole.

Figures 1a, 1b: The Mercator maps of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole.

An Earth bound observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone can identify the Orion constellation around New Year. Sirius is the brightest star in the sky and it is behind the trailing foot of the hunter.
Canopus is the next brightest star within 45 degrees of Sirius. The great circle arc Sirius to Canopus is nearly 35 degrees long. Doubling this arc bring us practically to the Southern Celestial pole.

Figure 2: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.
4. Visibility of these four stars.
The four stars appear on the meridional line (the North South line through the zenith of the observer) near midnight of New Year.
They appear two hours earlier for each additional calendar month after that date.
Example:
In April, they appear on the meridional line at about 24 hr – (2 hr)×(4th-1st) = 18 hr. After 18 hr they slowly move to the setting (Western) side.

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Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015 .

# Finding accurate direction by a watch

Method for finding accurate directions by a common analogue watch.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #compass, #direction, #by Sun, #bisector, #using watch, #with watch, #tilted watch, #inclined watch, #navigation, #without compass

This method uses a common 12-hour watch with analogue face for finding directions. Unlike the traditional method of using the hour hand of a flat lying watch, my method uses a watch tilted from the vertical and gives better accuracy for both North and South hemispheres including tropical zones. When applied to the arctic and antarctic regions, the watch is tilted by more than 67 degrees and lies almost flat on the ground; it becomes the traditional method using flat lying watch.
This method use the position of the Sun, time and known latitude angle to determine directions and Sun declination (therefore estimation of current month of the year).
The method for Northern latitudes is described below.

Method for Northern latitudes.

The red line is the bisector. The line CB is drawn on a card representing the half-plane to enable accurate alignment to the Sun

The bisector is in the opposite direction of a corresponding 24 hr hand on a 24 hr dial

Figure: Summary of finding North by a watch. Red hand is the bisector of 0 hr direction and the hour hand; green hand is its reflection across the (6-12) axis. Axis C-BN for Northern hemisphere is parallel to red hand at equinox days and is (raised above)/(dipped below) the watch dial by 23 degrees at local summer/winter solstice. Axis C-BS for Southern hemisphere is parallel to green hand at equinox days and is (raised above)/(dipped below) the watch dial by 23 degrees at local summer/winter solstice. Green drawing marks are for Southern hemisphere and are the mirror reflection of red drawing marks.

Method for Southern latitudes.
No ambiguity in equatorial latitudes.
The watch is placed almost vertically in equatorial latitudes by both methods. Methods for both Northern and Southern latitudes gives exactly the same outcomes.

Extension application for both hemispheres.

Figure: Summary of finding North by a watch.

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Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

# Mass immigration causes the death spiral for Western culture

### by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#Mass Immigration, #death spiral, #Western Culture,

Mass immigration causes the death spiral for Western culture.

# 1. Mass Immigration bring in features of unsuccessful cultures.

People immigrate into rich countries to leave behind their bad countries. Mass immigration is the movement of many people into a host country such that immigrant population overtakes the long established population.

We have to admit that there are good cultures and bad cultures. Good culture make their nations prosper, bad culture impoverish their nations.

There are a number of undeniably true quotes

1. Every country has the government it deserves (Toute nation a le gouvernement qu’elle mérite) by Joseph de Maistre. (Correspondance diplomatique, tome 2. Paris : Michel Lévy frères libraires éditeurs, 1860, p.196.) [3].

2. A culture can rise no higher than the moral position of its women. This quote is attributed to the late Mary McLeod Bethune.

The problem is that mass immigration brings people from unsuccessful countries (their failures were mostly caused by their bad cultures and they deserve their governments) into successful countries (their successes were mostly propelled by their good cultures). The obvious consequence is that the bad cultures from poor countries are not left behind by the immigrants but are imported into the successful countries under the name of “diversity”.

Leftists worship diversity while many original populations such as in Hungary, Czech, Slovakia protested against it [2].

Worse than that, mass immigrants may talk among themselves that the host country owe them something and has a duty to accept them and provide for them!

Again, we have to learn from Joseph de Maistre:

False opinions are like false money, struck first of all by guilty men and thereafter circulated by honest people who perpetuate the crime without knowing what they are doing (Joseph de Maistre) [3].

# 2. Social examples.

a. Australia was a rich country with self-respecting people until 1970’s. There were very few people claiming social welfare benefits. Around 1978, the Federal Government had to run TV add telling people to apply for social benefits if they entered hardship and entitled to the benefits.

After mass immigration programs, the population increased from around 10 million in 1975 to 22 millions in 2017. However, there are now problems with a high proportion of people claiming benefits they are not entitled to. Fraudulent claims on Social Welfare benefits is a current problem for Australia [1].

b. There are many local governments in Australia. Those local governments with very small number of immigrants retains most of their original features and keep on operating efficiently while local governments with high proportion of immigrants imported the questionable features of foreign countries.

Footscray Council of Victoria has high proportion of immigrants, it now has sky high annual Council rates relative to the useful services it provides and most of its actions are now questionable.

The following is some of my first hand observation of its operation:

Maribyrnong (Footscray) Council has non-transparent hire out of “student study rooms” in its Library (in 2005).

Maribyrnong (Footscray) Councilors had made junk oversea trips to Vietnam (using tax money collected by the Council) to propose its (unsuccessful) sisterhood to Ho-Chi-Minh City in Vietnam in 1995 !

Maribyrnong Council just keep planting and cutting down trees on kerb sides around its Library. Trees have no chance to reach maturity to be useful and tax money is wasted.

Maribyrnong required K-mart Supermarket to build for it a multilevel car-park to avoid car parking problems. Few years later, in 2003, it changed the car parks into block of apartments, creating even worse parking problem.

Maribyrnong Council constantly remodels and digs up its shopping Mall (Nicholson St) disrupting business and wasting tax money.

# 3. The death spiral of Western culture.

a. Leftists propose mass immigration.

b. New immigrants vote for leftists to return the favor. New immigrants bring with them their “old culture”.

c. Leftists are returned to their elected positions and bring in ever more immigrants.

d. The positive feed back reinforces each of the three steps over time, until the host country becomes an image of the impoverished countries from which the immigrants ran away.

# References.

WHITE RACE CAN STILL REPRODUCE GIVEN THE RIGHT MESSEAGE !

Latest

# Dueling by Tigers benefits the Hunter

### by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#Dueling by Tigers, #Hunter, #foreign affair, #Dueling by a Clamp and a Stork, #Fisherman,

Dueling by Tigers benefits the Hunter.

Dueling by a Clamp and a Stork benefits the Fisherman.

“Dueling by Tigers benefits the Hunter” means the fierce fighting between two tigers may make them both fall preys to their hunter.

# 1. The meaning and the actions.

“Dueling by Tigers benefits the Hunter” (“Lưỡng Hổ Nan Tranh, Tiều Phu Đắc Lợi” in Vietnamese) means the fierce fighting between two tigers benefits their hunter . The dueling of two tigers is a rare event. Both of them would then be so exhausted that they both becomes easy preys to any lucky tiger hunter at the scene.

When the quote entered the agriculture and fishery based Vietnamese culture it created a Vietnamese quote “Dueling by a Clamp and a Stork only benefits the Fisherman” . This quote means when a stork tries to peck the flesh out of a clamp, the Clamp may react by closing its strong half-shells to grip on the tips of the beak of the Stork making it stuck to the ground to be drowned at the next high tide. The fisherman only needs to first grab the stuck Stork then dig out the Clamp, if he so wishes.For the fisherman seeing a stork stuck with its beak stuck to the ground, he should catch it. He can also dig out the clamp if he does not need it to trap the next stork.

The morality is that any two parties in any dispute have to know that their fierce fighting may make them both falling prey to some opportunistic third-party.

(“Lưỡng Hổ” in old, Han derived, Vietnamese = two Tigers, Nan Tranh= hard fighting, Đắc Lợi = receiving the benefits, Tiều Phu = a person living off the forests).

(Nghiêu Cò Tranh Nhau, Ngư Ông Đắc Lợi =Dueling by a Clamp and a Stork benefits the Fisherman).

# 2. Historical examples.

a. During the Three Kingdoms period in China (from the foundation of the state of Wei in AD 220 to the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in AD 280.), there are three most powerful contenders to the supreme title [1, 2, 3]. They are Cao Wei (曹魏) State, Shu Han (蜀漢) State, and Dong (or Eastern) Wu (東吳) State.

The two most powerful contenders are Northern Cao Wei State (Bắc Tào Ngụy với Tào Tháo in Vietnamese) and Eastern Dong Wu State (Đông Ngô với Tôn Quyền in Vietnamese), The weakest contender is Western Shu Han State (Tây Thục Hán với Lưu Bị, Khổng Minh, Quan Công, Trương Phi in Vietnamese). The two strongest contenders fought like Dueling Tigers while the third, weaker, Western Shu Han State only managed to prevent any of its more powerful neighbour states from being an outright winner. The weaker state played the role of the beneficiary Hunter.

b. During the Northern Jin (1115–1234) – Southern Song (1127–1279) time in China [4], the two states fought fiercely like Two Dueling Tigers, their border was the Huai river. Then came the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan (r. 1206–1227) in the North of Jin as the Hunter benefiting from the dueling.

(“Northern Jin (1115–1234) – Southern Song (1127–1279) time” in Vietnamese = Thời Bắc Kim (1115–1234) – Nam Tống (1127–1279); với chuyện Nhạc Phi-Tần Cổi).

Figure: Map of Song Dynasty 1141, By Ian Kiu, Based on a map in Albert Herrmann (1935). History and Commercial Atlas of China, Harvard University Press , file https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jin%E2%80%93Song_Wars#/media/File:Sung_Dynasty_1141.png. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

In 1211 an enormous Mongol army conquered Jin and its neighbor Western Xia. The Mongols were allied with the Song (practicing Allying to Distant Powers to Subjugate Immediate Neighbours.). At the collapse of the Jin dynasty, the Song recaptured the former imperial capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang, and Chang’an. Thereafter the alliance was broken. The Mongol leader Möngke Khan led a campaign against the Song in 1259 but died on August 11. There were minor border skirmishes until 1265, when Kublai won a significant battle in Sichuan. In 1275, a Song force of 130,000 troops was defeated by Kublai’s force. By 1276, most of the Song territory had been captured by Kublai’s forces.

So the Mongols had played the role of the Hunter against the Two Dueling Tigers Jin and Southern Song.

c. During the short war between two communist leaders [5,6,7,8], The Soviet Union (USSR) and China in 1968, the US had conserved its energy and let USSR and China played as two Dueling Tigers. US President Nixon did threaten USSR that US would not stand idling if USSR started to attack the Nuclear Capability of its opponent China. The threat by Nixon had denied the Soviet Union its only advantage over China, denying it the chance to walk over China and consequential claim to be the Sole Leader of the Communist Nations. The US has cleverly played the role of the beneficiary Hunter (although at the expense of its South Vietnam ally).

Both the Soviet Union and China got exhausted. The USSR was so exhausted that it could not crush the Taliban taking on its neighbor Afghanistan. China had to pretend to be the “NATO like Ally on the East for the US”. Nixon and Kissinger visited China and two weeks after that China militarily overran the Paracel Islands of South Vietnam, securing its current strategic advantage and establish its modus operandi for expansion on the seas.

d. The Iraq-Iran war.

Both Iran and Iraq wanted to be the leader in the Middle East [9]. US sold advanced weapons to both Iran (F14 Tomcats fighters and an Aircraft Carrier in negotiation) and Iraq (with less advanced fighter aircrafts). The deadly war between these two oil-rich countries (both with Islamic populations) is just like the Dueling between Two Tigers. The beneficiary Hunter is obviously the US and the Western Allies.

Latest

# The Southern Cross Pointer stars

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #finding North, #navigation, #alpha Centauri, #Agena, #Southern Cross, #pointers, #constellation, #Scorpius,

The Southern Cross Pointer Stars.

Celestial navigators who do not use declination and right ascension begin their navigation by learning the various bright, easily unmistakable constellations in the sky (There are no more than 10 to learn beginning with Orion constellation. and Scorpius constellation.). In the Southern Hemisphere, the Pointers to Southern Cross constellation are next to be learnt as they are very bright and most easy to identify.

The two Pointer stars are two very bright stars (alpha Centauri and Agena) in the Southern Celestial hemisphere. They are very useful as they help identifying nearby navigational stars and consequently finding Southern Celestial pole for navigation.

These two bright stars are circumpolar and are both 30 degrees from to the Southern Celestial pole. They are seen late night in February, all night in May, early night in September.

Inhabitants of Southern hemisphere need only to identify Alpha Centauri (brighter star of the pair), Agena (dimmer star of the pair),  and Achernar in the clockwise direction (all at 60° South declination) to find the Southern  Celestial  pole which is at the center of the circle of 30 degrees in radius through these three stars. Achernar is almost 60 degree from the Pointers (alpha Centauri, Agena) and is opposite them across the Southern Celestial Pole.

Figure: Pointer stars pointing to the Southern Cross on a Polar Skymap for Southern hemisphere.

Extending the line alpha Centauri-Agena (from brighter to dimmer Pointer) by 8 degrees takes us to the Southern Cross Constellation. Then turning clockwise by 50 degrees and extending by an additional  50 degrees takes us to the very bright Canopus star which is nearly 40 degrees from the Southern Celestial pole.

In the opposite direction, extending the line Agena-alpha Centauri (from dimmer Pointer to brighter Pointer) by about 30 degrees takes us to the stinger tail of the large, distinctive Scorpius constellation (this line goes on for another 40 degrees to reach the bright tropical star Altair). From the direction of the line Agena-alpha Centauri (from dimmer to brighter Pointer) turn clockwise by 50 degrees and travel by about 45 degrees from alpha Centauri takes us to the moderately bright star Antares at the heart of the Scorpion.

Figure: Locating an individual star in a crowded area is easily carried out using a folded piece of cardboard: The folding line is aimed at the first known star, one cardboard flap is aligned to contain the second known star. The other flap is then opened to the required angle (marked 1) and the angle to the target star (marked 2) can be read.

2. The Southern Cross.

The Southern Cross is a useful navigational constellation. Its long axis goes through the Southern Celestial pole (which is also nearly on the bisector of the Pointer Stars and is also nearly on the line through Sirius and Canopus) in one direction and goes through the Northern Celestial pole in the opposite direction.

Turning slightly by 20 degrees anticlockwise toward the trailing’ side (Eastern side) from this direction to the Northern Celestial pole and travel by a distance of about 50 degrees from the Southern Cross takes us to the bright star Spica. Turning more anticlockwise towards the Eastern side by an additional 15 degrees from that direction and traveling an additional distance of about 30 degrees takes us next to the very bright star Bootes Arcturus  (The direction from Spica to Bootes Arcturus is pointing about 25 degrees  to the trailing side, Eastward, from the direction of a great circle arc toward the Northern Celestial pole.).

3. The dates of Pointers to Southern Cross.

Figure 1: The dates of Agena and alpha Centauri from the table of star dates.

The Pointer stars are seen in late night in February, all night in May, and in early night in September.

4. Taking photos of the Pointers.

Figure 1: The Pointers and Southern Cross Constellation are in the lower right quarter of this phpto taken with a Samsung Galaxy Note 2. The original photo has been digitally enhanced.

The Pointers and Southern Cross constellation are adequately bright and their photos can be taken using a smart phone such as a Samsung Galaxy Note 2 with no extra attachment.

The Pointers and 3 corner stars of the vertical Southern Cross are seen on the bottom right of the above two pictures. The dimmer fourth stars of the Southern Cross can be seen in the second photo. Antares is the bright star near the middle of the left border of the second picture. Antares and the front part of the Scorpius constellation are located near the center of the left border of the second picture (The very bright dot near the upper left corner of the picture is a planet.).

Figure 2: Photos of the Pointers and Southern Cross Constellation taken with a Samsung Galaxy Note 2. The original photos have been digitally enhanced.

The two bright Pointers are seen on the bottom right of this picture 2b. The two brightest spots on the left half of this picture are two planets traveling on the Ecliptic. Antares is the bright star near the middle of the half left of this picture. Vertically above Antares is the front part of the Scorpius constellation. Vertically below Antares is the bright stinging tail of the Scorpius.

Figures 3: Photo of the Scorpius Constellation taken with a Samsung Galaxy Note 2 at the same time. The original photos have been digitally enhanced.

The Scorpius constellation just mentioned is captured  in the center of the third photo. There are four brightest dots on the top of the picture. The far right and far left dots are very bright and are two planets traveling on the ecliptic. The planets on the ecliptic sometimes make confusing the identification of the stars at the front of this constellation.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[2]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[3].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

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