Finding North from unclear sky around September.

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Altair, #Fomalhaut, #September, #unclear sky,

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

Around September there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Deneb close to the Celestial North pole and Fomalhaut in the Southern sky. These stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.

To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its September marking on its rim pointing towards the ground as illustrated here.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for September on the rim (at 6 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of bright stars Vega, Deneb [1], Cassiopeia constellation, bright star Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Cassiopeia goes highest around 01am.

The bisector of the M shaped Cassiopeia goes through the Northern Celestial pole. The Northern Celestial pole is almost 30 degree below Cassiopeia.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Figure 2: Polar Inversion map of Northern Celestial 3/4 sphere.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its September marking on its rim pointing towards the ground as illustrated here.

An observer has to align the polar map with marking for September on the rim pointing downward as illustrated here. An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see Achernar [1] rising highest around 2am. Southern Celestial pole is about 30 degree below Achernar.

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

A observer in the tropic should already know the two brightest stars Scorpius Antares (at the heart) and Scorpius Shaula (at the stinger end) of the Scorpius [1]. The straight line from Antares to Shaula goes through the bright star Fomalhaut which is of 60 degree distances from both Scorpius Shaula and Altair [1] which is a star of July and is close to the Celestial equator.

Figure 2: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Fomalhaut and its nearby stars.

The bisector of the angle Shaula, Altair, Fomalhaut points to the Southern Celestial pole.

Southern Celestial pole is is of 90 degree distance from Altair and of equal 60 degree from both Scorpius Shaula and Fomalhaut.

5. Visibility of the stars.

Scorpius Altairs and Scorpius Shaula are stars of June that set close to midnight when viewed from tropical zone. Altair is a star of July that sets close to 02 am. Fomalhaut is visible for nearly the whole night in September.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around July, posted on 2018, May 13.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around April, posted on 2018, April 12.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[5]. , posted on

[6]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[7].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

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The Frog and the Scorpion

via The Frog and the Scorpion

(reblogged from

https://vikinglifeblog.wordpress.com/2016/05/05/the-frog-and-the-scorpion/ )

Illustration image from:

https://iykeokoroblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/frog.jpg?w=255&h=196

One day, a scorpion looked around at the mountain where he lived and decided that he wanted a change. So he set out on a journey through the forests and hills. He climbed over rocks and under vines and kept going until he reached a river.

The river was wide and swift, and the scorpion stopped to reconsider the situation.

He decided to ask the frog for help getting across the stream.

“Hellooo Mr. Frog!” called the scorpion across the water, “Would you be so kind as to give me a ride on your back across the river?”

“Well now, Mr. Scorpion! How do I know that if I try to help you, you wont try to kill me?” asked the frog hesitantly.

Halfway across the river, the frog suddenly felt a sharp sting in his back and, out of the corner of his eye, saw the scorpion remove his stinger from the frog’s back.

“You fool!” croaked the frog, “Now we shall both die! Why on earth did you do that?”

The scorpion shrugged, and did a little jig on the drownings frog’s back.

“I could not help myself. It is my nature.”

Then they both sank into the muddy waters of the swiftly flowing river.

Self destruction – “Its my Nature”, said the Scorpion…

Comment by tonytran2015:

Never compromise your own survival to be helpful to strangers or acquaintance. The world is quite treacherous.

See also: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Frog_and_the_Mouse#The_Eastern_analogue

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Indian mariners had first use of magnetic navigational compasses.

Indian mariners had first use of magnetic navigational compasses.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

The magnetic navigational compasses may have been first used by Indian people and may not have been first invented by Chinese people as often claimed.

#compass, #navigation, #lodestone, #Chinese compass, #Olmec magnetic, #Indian, #yantra, #matsya yantra, #maccha yantra,

Indian mariners had first use of magnetic navigational compasses.

1. Claims that China invented the compasses.

Wikipedia said that

“The first compasses were made of lodestone, a naturally magnetized ore of iron, in Han dynasty China between 300 and 200 BC.”[1]

The entry on Han Dynasty said that

“The Han dynasty (/hɑːn/; Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn cháo) was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD).” [2]

Figure: Han Dynasy, from https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Han_Dynasty_Plain_map.PNG#mw-jump-to-license

So the compasses are used in China after 206 BC, but it was initially only for geomancy.

“The magnetic compass was not, at first, used for navigation, but for geomancy and fortune-telling by the Chinese. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were possibly used to order and harmonize buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles of feng shui.” [1]

“The compass was later used for navigation by the Song Dynasty”[1]. (Song Dynasty: Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279)

So the written records on the use of compasses for navigation in China are made after year 960 CE.

Note that there were South-pointing chariots used in ancient China before year 235 CE [2b, 2c, 2d] but their operation was not based on magnetism. Their operation relied on the differential between the numbers of rotations of the left and right wheels (of same size) of each chariot to give its total yawing angle since departure.

Those chariots may have even been “first constructed by the Duke of Zhou (beginning of the 1st millennium BC) as a means of conducting homewards certain envoys who had arrived from a great distance beyond the frontiers.” [2b].

Figure: Model of a Chinese South Pointing Chariot, an early navigational device using a differential gear. Original file from
https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:South-pointing_chariot_(Science_Museum_model).jpg#mw-jump-to-license
by Author Andy Dingley, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

2. Appropriate places to look for records.

Many people look for easily read records. China certainly has many records which have been translated into English and are easily understood by readers in the World.

However, China is a land conquering empire, requiring little use of compasses while India is a sea faring trading empire which may benefit a lot from compasses. The logical place to look for records of first use of navigational compasses should therefore be India, an outreaching seafaring trading empire (as necessity is the mother of inventions). Indian influence is obvious over the vast area of Indian Ocean, Polynesian nations and (mostly South) Pacific Ocean [2e].

Any discovery of earlier use of magnetic navigational compass predating Chinese use should not surprise/disappoint investigators as the people of the trading Olmec nation (on the side of the Gulf of Mexico) has even used lodestones, hematite, magnetite since 1500 BC, one thousand year before any record of Chinese first use of lodestones [3], [4].

It is to be noted that China is on the East of India while Arab countries, Spain, Olmec are spread to its West.

3. Many evidences pointing to ancient use of compasses by Indian people .

The literature of the out reaching, sea faring nation India have many evidence to support its first use of the magnetic navigation compass.

“The compass was first used in India, around 1800 BC, for Navigational purposes and was known as “Matsya yantra” (which roughly translates to fish machine) because of the placement of a metallic fish in a cup of oil.” [5]

However, no evidence have been given in [5] to support the claim of “around 1800 BC”.

Reference [6] stated that
“In the Tamil nautical books, the use of compass is mentioned in the fourth century BC”,

4. Evidence on knowledge of magnetic attraction by Indian people since 500BC.

K. V. Ramakrishna Rao [7] pointed out that:

In Vedas, there is reference to “ayas” implying Iron and “Akarshan” attaction, thus, pointing to Iron-magnet relationship.[7]

Kanada (c.550 BCE) mentions about a needle that moves towards a magnet as –

“Manigamanam sucyabhi sarpanam drastakaranam” (Kanadasutra.V.I.15). In the commentary called the Upaskara, the passage has been clearly explained to signify that the needle goes towards the magnet.[7]. (Wikipedia [8] stated that Kanada was estimated to live between 6th and 2nd century BC.)

Kalidasa (c.500 BCE) records: “Siva’s mind has been fixed steadily because of penance. And therefore, now try to distract his attention just like an iron piece is attracted or drawn towards a magnet (ayaskantena lohavat akarshtum)” (Kumarasambavam.II.59).“[7]

The date of 500 BCE assigned for Kalidasa quoted by [7] may be in error. Wikipedia [9] stated that Kalidasa’s works cannot be dated with precision, but they were most likely authored within the 4th-5th century CE. In any event, it is not important, only the date of 550BCE assigned to Kanada is pivotal to the thesis of this article.

5. Evidence on compass use by Indian people since 500CE.

Milindapanho (VII.2.16) composed during 4th-5th centuries CE, mentions about an instrument used by the pilot of a ship for steering the ship.

“And again, O King, as the pilot put a seal on the steering apparatus, lest any one should touch it”.
“[7]

Rhys Davis translates the term as “steering apparatus” and it Sanskrit it is “yantra”, a mechanical devise, just like “matsya yantra” working on mechanical and accompanied with other principles.[7]

Mookerji points out a compass on one of the ships in which Hindus of the early Christian era sailed out to colonize Java and other islands in the Indian ocean. The Hindu compass was an iron fish (called in Sanskrit matsya-yantra or fish machine). It floated in a vessel of oil and point to the north (History of Indian Shipping, London, 1912) [7].

The following is what Mr. J.L. Reid, who was a member of the Institute of Naval Architects and Shipbuilders in England, has said in the Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xiii., Part ii., Appendix A.

“The early Hindu astrologers are said to have used the magnet, in fixing the North and East, in laying foundations, and other religious ceremonies. The Hindu compass was an iron fish that floated in a vessel of oil and pointed to the North. The fact of this older Hindu compass seems placed beyond doubt by the Sanskrit word Maccha Yantra, or fish machine, which Molesworth gives as a name for the mariner’s compass”. [10]

6. Conclusions

The thesis of this article is Indian mariners have already used magnetic navigation compass at least since 500 CE while Chinese had recorded usage of them only after 900 CE, a long four hundred years later.

It appears that the out reaching Indian seafarers had the first use of magnetic navigational compasses. Since necessity is the mother of inventions, it is natural to expect this as India had been an ancient seafaring trading nation.

References:

[1]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_compass

[2]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_dynasty

[2b]. Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd., pages 286, 289, 291, 298.

[2c]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/South-pointing_chariot

[2d]. https://vi.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xe_ch%E1%BB%89_nam

[2e]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamils

OLMEC LODESTONES

[3]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olmecs

[4]. https://misfitsandheroes.wordpress.com/2018/01/15/fat-boys-magnetism-and-magic/

INDIAN COMPASSES

[5]. .https://knowledge4civil.wordpress.com/2017/07/23/types-and-uses-of-compass/

[6]. http://www.whoinvent.com/who-invented-the-compass/

[7]. http://archive.worldhistoria.com/compass-in-india_topic17077.html

[6b]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanada_(philosopher)

[6c]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%81lid%C4%81sa

[10]. http://www.crystalinks.com/indiaships.html

[11]. http://bharatuntoldstory.tumblr.com/post/73862258619/maccha-yantra-the-ancient-indian-mariners

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Who Survived More Lightning Strikes, Roy Sullivan or Melvin Roberts?

Reblogged by tonytran2015.

True Strange Library

Today’s stop on our world tour of true strange stuff: two “human lightning rods.” The first isRoy Sullivan, a bear smacking park ranger who survived being struck by lightning seven times. Who else ever (quite reasonably) kept a bucket of water handy in his truck for when his hair caught on fire?


Roy Cleveland Sullivan (February 7, 1912 – September 28, 1983) was a United States park ranger in Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. Between 1942 and 1977, Sullivan was hit by lightning on seven different occasions and survived all of them. For this reason, he gained a nickname “Human Lightning Conductor” and “Human Lightning Rod”. Sullivan is recognized by Guinness World Records as the person struck by lightning more recorded times than any other human being.In [a] photo of him … a prominent burn mark is visible on his ranger hat.

Link

The details are an astounding…

View original post 1,853 more words

42,000-year-old worms revived from Siberian permafrost

Lives from different periods of time can intermingle. How can you be sure that you are older than all the worms around you ?

Centinel2012

Well, it looks like you can’t just freeze politicians and end their reign of terror. It turns out, they might still be thawed out 42,000 years later beginning again. The latest biology news was reported in Germany in grenzwissenschaft-aktuell.de. A 42,000-year-old soil sample from Siberian permafrost contained nematodes. It was thawed and the soil contained worms which were brought back to life. This amazing event set the biology record for the period of time over which higher organisms can survive in cryogenic sleep. They reported that the worms began to move within a few weeks at 20 degrees Celsius in the Moscow laboratories and began to eat food.

There are two species of worm that have been discovered. Panagrolaimus nematodes have been revived which date back 32,000 years and were located at about 3.0 meters down. The Plectus worms were discovered…

View original post 46 more words

Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #find true North, #North, #true North, #find time, #time, #Sun, #fingers,

Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

There are times when you neither have your watch nor can use any magnetic compass in the location but you want to find out the North-South directions and the time. This method is useful for those such difficult situations. Those situations may arise if you get lost without having your watch while traveling or if you find yourself without your watch while traveling inside a bus or a train. The method from this article gives both the true North direction and the local time from the position of the Sun using only your fingers.

Required preparatory practices

1. Practice holding each of your hands in the three principal postures as illustrated in the following three figures.

Summer Solstice

Equinox

Winter Solstice

Figures: Hand postures for Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice. Click on individual figure to enlarge.

If this practice cannot be carried out due to body deformity or illness (such as rheumatism) then some other method of finding North should be used instead.

The equinox posture is to be used around Mar 21st and Sep 23rd equinoxes while Summer and Winter Solstice postures are to be used around your local Summer and Winter solstices respectively.

The index finger in these postures is always aligned with the forearm and is to be kept in line with the line from the elbow to the tip of the index finger.

The angle between the index and the middle fingers should have value of:
90 degrees for Equinox posture
90-23= 67degrees for Winter Solstice posture and
90+23= 113 degrees for Summer Solstice posture. The above angles for Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice postures are equal to the angles between a clock hand pointing at 0 minutes and
19 minutes,
15 minutes,
11 minutes respectively. These angles are represented by angles between positions of watch hands on a watch face shown in two following figures.

EcoDriveDuo

EcodriveDuo2

Figure: Angles for hand postures at Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice are represented by angles between positions of watch hands on a watch face.

The long white hand pointing at 0 minute of the watch-face represents the direction of the left index finger of the user of this method while the long red hand represents the direction of his left middle finger.

The angle between the hands on each watch-face has been chosen to match the angle between the line to the Sun on the respective date and the line to the Celestial pole below the horizon. The angle between the red hand and the thick white hand pointing at 15 minutes represent the declination angle of the Sun (or its negative, depending on the observer being in the Southern or Northern terrestrial hemisphere). The variation of that angle through various dates of the year can be found in previous blogs [1,2].

solar-declination-by-a-watch-face

Figure: Determining solar declination using a watch face. (The lines “SOLAR DECLINATION Its rough estimate is required for Fine Alignment of the watch” are to be ignored.)

2. Determine the slope to your Celestial pole.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage. The cage rotates around the Celestial axis joining the its two points called the Celestial poles.

This slope from level ground surface is called the latitude of your place. Practice recognizing it.

Find a level ground. On a clear night set up a stick pointing from the ground to the Celestial pole. In the Northern hemisphere the Celestial pole has a star (Polaris) while in the Southern hemisphere it is only a point on the geometrical figure formed by circum-polar stars.

Figure: The Northern Celestial pole is the center of this map of the Northern sky.

Figure: The Southern Celestial pole is the center of this map of the Southern sky.

The angle between this pole and the ground is called the latitude of the location. The angle between the pole and a vertical plumb line is (90° – latitude). You need to practice recognizing this angle. (Knowing this angle also help you quickly find the Celestial pole from the stars).

3. Practice reading in degrees the angles between positions of hands on a clock face.

The angle between a hand pointing at 0 minute and another one pointing at
5 minutes is 30 degrees,
10 minutes is 60 degrees,
15 minutes is 90 degrees,
20 minutes is 120 degrees,
25 minutes is 150 degrees,
30 minutes is 180 degrees.

8 Steps for finding true North and time.

1. Determine the current season in the year to select the appropriate hand posture.

The equinox posture is to be used around Mar 21st and Sep 23rd equinoxes while Summer and Winter Solstice postures are to be used around your local Summer and Winter soltices respectively (Each posture can be used for its whole month and a solstice posture can also be used for two adjacent months.).

If the season in the year cannot be determined (as in the case of inhabitants living in artificial environment for years), use the hand posture for equinox days.

2. Determine whether you are in the Northern or Southern hemisphere.

3. Determine if you are in the morning (the Sun is rising before noon) or in the afternoon (the Sun is setting after noon)

This step is needed to select the appropriate hand for the task.

4. Select and use only the appropriate hand for the task:

4a. Northern hemisphere: LEFT hand in the morning THEN RIGHT hand in the afternoon.
4b.Southern hemisphere:RIGHT hand in the morning THEN LEFT hand in the afternoon.

5. Point the index finger to the Sun with your middle finger in its comfortable, nearly horizontal position.

6. Twist the forearm and hand until the middle finger makes with the level ground an angle equal to the latitude angle.

This is illustrated in the two figures.

Find North by Left Hand

Figure: Finding the meridian (true North-South) line with the left hand.

Find North by Right Hand

Figure: Finding the meridian (true North-South) line with the right hand.

7. The projection of the middle finger onto the ground now points exactly away from the terrestrial pole of your hemisphere.

The middle finger now points to the Celestial pole below the horizon, in other terms it points directly away from the visible Celestial pole in the sky.

8. Looking along that direction pointed by the middle finger and imagining a 24-hour clock dial attached to that axis give a natural clock giving time in the day.

Find time by divider

Figure: The line CB to the Sun form the hour hand of a 24 hour clock. This clock face is for Northern hemisphere. In Northern hemisphere the hand sweeps clockwise while in Southern hemisphere it sweeps anticlockwise.

The time given by the natural clock is the local time which has noon when the Sun is highest in the sky. Local time differs from the zonal time selected by the government.

9. Around noon time, either left or right hand can be used. The terrestrial North South line is determined with least accuracy around noon time.

10. On the terrestrial equator, either selection of 4a or 4b can be applied. The middle finger of the selection 4a points at true terrestrial South while that of 4b points at true terrestrial North.

Figure: Summary of the method of finding true North and time from the Sun.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015.

wpid-dividermwp3e2c2.jpg

find North by the Sun

[2]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/02/13/good-approximation-to-solar-declination-by-a-watch-face/

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Finding direction, distance and navigating to a distant base by stars (Part 1). Posted on January 27, 2016 . This is a novel application for direction of stars in the sky.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere Sky map Southern 3/4 sphere

Finding direction, distance and navigating to a distant base by stars, fine reading of latitude (Part 2).. Posted on February 6, 2016. This is a novel way of accurately arriving at any chosen destination latitude using no instrument.

BStarsN20Vega8C2.jpg

NAVIGATION using only constellations.

The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

The Scorpius constellation, posted on January 8, 2017

The Southern Cross Pointer stars, posted February 26, 2018

NAVIGATION (Terrestrial).

Measuring angles and distances for outdoor survival, posted on June 29, 2016

DistPole

NAVIGATION (Instrumental).

Finding North with a lensatic compass, posted on August 21, 2017

Compass-Magnetic

Determining local magnetic declination by a magnetic compass, posted on March 31, 2016

Compass-Magnetic

, posted on June 14, 2016

compass Reversal

Selecting and using magnetic compasses, posted on July 9, 2016

Compass Lensatic Jap

Shadow stick navigation and graph of solar paths, posted August 19, 2016

ShadowStick

Using GPS in off-grid situations, posted December 06, 2016

Adding longitude and latitude lines to a map, posted August 23, 2017

Map w Coordinates

Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver, posted January 17, 2017

radio sony

Finding North direction and time using geological features, plants and animals, posted August 04, 2017

FIRE MAKING.

Making fire and lighting cigarettes with sunlight. Posted on February 27, 2016

StormWatchDiagram

Quick fire making using sunlight, posted on January 4, 2017

20161222_131508gballfirec60.jpg

Mirror for making fire using sunlight., posted on April 13, 2016

20160105_143215C

Predicting-the-temperature-of-a-habitat, posted on August 31, 2017

compass thermometer

FOOD

Rice as emergency food., posted December 24, 2016

20161230_192839ricegrains2c60.jpg

Dried-sweet-fruits-as-energy-food, posted December 24, 2017

Air-grown-mung-bean-sprouts-for-food, posted March 07, 2016

MISCELLANEOUS

Old maps:

Interesting maps of old Saigon , posted on March 20, 2016 .

SaigonThanhQuy

Detecting Counterfeit Currency

Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars, posted on July 15, 2016

Hologram

, posted on November 15, 2016

polymer 5 dollars transparent stripe

Other languages:

Survival-topics-available-in-other-languages , posted on june 18, 2017 .

click to go to polymeraust100dollarsMONEY , 20160105_145215CHOW TO , 20160105_145215CSOCIAL ISSUES , 20160105_145215CLIVING sub-pages

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Finding North from unclear sky around July.

Finding North from unclear sky around July.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Vega, #Deneb, #Altair, #July, #unclear sky

Around July there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Vega, Altair and Deneb. These three stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.
To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its July marking (at 4 o’clock position) on its rim pointing towards the ground.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for July on the rim (at 4 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of three bright stars Vega, Deneb, Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Vega and Deneb go highest around 24 hr.

The bisector of the line Vega Deneb goes through the Northern Celestial pole. The pole is almost of equal distances of 45 degrees from each of them.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its July marking (at 8 o’clock position) on its rim pointing towards the ground.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for July on the rim (at 8 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see the Southern Cross Pointers highest around 18 hr, then Antares around 20 hr. Achernar is seen rising before Sunrise. The midpoint between the Pointers and Achernar is almost the Southern Celestial pole.

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

A observer in the tropic should already know the very bright star Bootes and the bright star Antares in the Scorpius constellation used in April.

Figure 1: Photograph of Spica (near the bottom edge), Bootes Arcturus (near the right edge) and Antares (1/8 of the width from the left edge) forming a triangle. Celestial North is at 01 o’clock position (30 degree clockwise from vertical) in this photo. There is a very bright planet (1/2 from left edge, 1/3 from bottom) traveling on the Ecliptic in this photo.

Figure 2: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

On the trailing side of Bootes Arcturus and Antares, (click the above Mercator map for details) there is a bright star of equal distances of 60 degrees to both of them. This star is Altair, which is as bright as Antares.

Following the line Antares to Bootes Arcturus, turning anti-clockwise by 90 degrees at Bootes Arcturus and traveling for 60 degrees takes us to Vega, which is as bright as Bootes Arcturus. The line (Antares, Arcturus) is nearly at right angle to the almost straight line (Spica, Arcturus, Vega).

The line (Bootes Arcturus, Antares) is nearly parallel to the line (Vega, Altair) which lie slightly nearer to Bootes Arcturus.

Vega is as bright as Bootes Arcturus while Altair is as bright as Antares.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Figure 3: Polar Inversion map of Northern Celestial 3/4 sphere. The line (Vega, Altair) is 30 degrees long and is nearly parallel to the line (Bootes Arcturus, Antares) which is 60 degrees long.

Rotate the line (Altair, Vega) about Altair by 10 degrees counter-clockwise give the great circle through the two Celestial poles. Northern Celestial pole is nearer to Vega and is 80 degrees from Altair. Southern Celestial pole is nearer to Altair and is 100 degrees from Altair.

Trailing 2 hour behind Vega is the bright star Deneb (see the Mercator star-map). (Vega, Altair, Deneb) is known as the Summer Triangle. The bisector of the angle Vega, Altair, Deneb points to the Northern Celestial pole.

Bright Stars 20 Plus 2

Figure 4: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.

5. Visibility of the stars.

Altair is visible for nearly the whole night in July. The Summer Triangle is visible for nearly the whole night in July. Click on the Mercator map for details.

6. CAUTION with planets
The Moon and planets travel on the Ecliptic. Observers should take care not to mistake any planet for Antares in the Scorpius constellation.
A planet is always brighter than any star, including Sirius, moves from night to night, and does not twinkle in clear sky.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around April, posted on 2018, April 12.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[4]. , posted on

[5]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[6].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

RELATED SURVIVAL BLOGS

Caution in finding North by bisector line of a horizontal watch. Posted on October 28, 2015

Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015. <<<—This is my MOST USEFUL novel technique.

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find North by the Sun

Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015

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Finding North direction and time accurately from the horn line of the Moon. Posted on August 12, 2015. This is my novel technique.

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Finding North direction and time using the Moon surface features. Posted on July 1, 2015.

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, posted on

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Sky map Southern 3/4 sphere

Finding North and time with unclear sky. Posted on October 17, 2015.

image

image

, posted July 22, 2016

DirectionTimeByStars

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Finding North from unclear sky around April.

Finding North from unclear sky around April.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Spica, #Bootes Arcturus, #Antares, #April, #unclear sky
Around April there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Spica, Bootes Arcturus and Antares. These three stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.
To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure 1: Stars in the Northern hemisphere rotates anticlockwise around the North pole.

An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of three bright stars Vega, Deneb, Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Big Dipper constellation goes highest around 22 hr.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure 1: Stars in the sothern hemisphere rotates anticlockwise around the North pole.

An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see the Southern Cross Pointers for the whole night.

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

Figure 1: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

An Earth bound observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone can identify the forward swept broom (or a duck foot (?), a bird foot (?) or a tree with 3 upper branches (?)). formed by the brightest star Sirius and four surrounding bright stars Canopus, Orion-Rigel, Betelgeuse and Procyon. The line Canopus to Sirius make the 35 degrees long broomstick handle and three lines from Sirius to each of the other three stars form three branches of the forward swept broom head (see the star maps). Sirius to Procyon is the trailing branch of the (three branched) broom head.
Doubling the travel from Sirius to Procyon takes us to another bright star named Pollux.

Two thirds of the line from Procyon to Pollux is a point on the Ecliptic (the great circle containing the.Sun and all planets). Turning anticlockwise 100 degrees at this point and traveling by a distance of 40 degrees takes us to a less bright star Leo Regulus. Keeping the direction from that two thirds point to Leo Regulus and travel for another 50 degrees takes us to a brighter star Spica. Spica is 90 degree in distance from the that two thirds point. (Observers from the Southern Hemisphere may also see that the great circle arc going through the long axis of the Southern Cross goes by 50 degrees to get very close to Spica. Draw the line from Southern Cross to Spica and then turns 30 degrees anticlockwise and continue for another 30 degrees to reach Bootes Arcturus.)

Turning clockwise by 90 degrees at Spica to leave the Ecliptic and traveling by 30 degrees takes us to a much brighter unmistakable star Bootes Arcturus.

Instead of turning right toward Bootes Arcturus, traveling along the Ecliptic for another 50 degrees take us to a bright star Antares in the Scorpius (Observers from the Southern Hemisphere may also see that Antares is 45 degrees clockwise and 45 degrees distance from the direction of dim Pointer to bright Pointer.).

Figure: Antares is the bright star in the Scorpius constellation which has the shape of a declawed scorpion. Two bright objects on the third top of the photo are planets traveling on the Ecliptic. Northern Celestial pole is from the top left (11 o’clock) direction of the photo.

The stars Spica, Bootes Arcturus, Antares form an arrow-head pointing North.

The midpoint of the great circle arc from Spica to Bootes Arcturus is almost on the Celestial equator. Rotating this arc clockwise by 30 degrees makes its extension goes through both Celestial poles. Northern Celestial pole is 90 degrees from the midpoint and on the side of Bootes Arcturus. Southern Celestial pole is 90 degrees from the midpoint and on the side of Spica.

The internal bisector of the angle formed by (Spica, Bootes Arcturus, Antares) points to the Southern Celestial pole while its rearward extension points to the Northern Celestial pole.

Figure: Photograph of Spica (near the bottom edge), Bootes Arcturus (near the right edge) and Antares (1/8 of the width from the left edge) forming a triangle. Celestial North is at 01 o’clock position (30 degree clockwise from vertical) in this photo. There is a very bright planet (1/2 from left edge, 1/3 from bottom) traveling on the Ecliptic in this photo.

Bright Stars 20 Plus 2

Figure 2: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.

5. Visibility of the stars.
Orion constellation, Sirius and its surrounding stars are visible after Sunset. Spica, Bootes Arcturus and Antares are all visible for nearly the whole night in April.

Figure 1: Azimuth and elevation angles of stars for equatorial observers.

Figure 2: Azimuth and elevation angles of stars for observers on 30 degrees North latitude.

Figure 3: Azimuth and elevation angles of stars for observers on 30 degrees South latitude.

6. CAUTION with planets
The Moon and planets travel on the Ecliptic. Observers should take care not to mistake any planet for a navigational bright star.
A planet is always brighter than any star, including Sirius, moves from night to night, and does not twinkle in clear sky.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[3]. , posted on

[4]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[5].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

RELATED SURVIVAL BLOGS

Caution in finding North by bisector line of a horizontal watch. Posted on October 28, 2015

Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015. <<<—This is my MOST USEFUL novel technique.

wpid-dividermwp3e2c2.jpg

find North by the Sun

Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015

image

Finding North direction and time accurately from the horn line of the Moon. Posted on August 12, 2015. This is my novel technique.

image

Finding North direction and time using the Moon surface features. Posted on July 1, 2015.

image

, posted on

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015 .

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Sky map Southern 3/4 sphere

Finding North and time with unclear sky. Posted on October 17, 2015.

image

image

, posted July 22, 2016

DirectionTimeByStars

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