“Anti-Asian Hate” Mischaracterized to Defame Good Americans While Hiding Black Crime – WarOnPress

https://waronpress.com/2021/04/08/asian-hate-mischaracterized-to-defame-good-americans-while-hiding-black-crime/

April 7, 2021
WarOnPress

A wave of “Black” on Asian crime has escalated as the Critical Race Theory hate speech elevated as “curriculum” has expanded the usual racist screed against “white privilege” to include the group that routinely outperforms all other colors of American.

The Cultural Marxists had unceremoniously disenfranchised Asians from their magical “People of Color” designation long before they came up with a new, more hateful, racist and exclusionary term “BIPOC” which explicitly means “everybody but whites and Asians.”

Reports of violent beat downs and even murders of Asian Americans make repeated mention of the ethnicity of the victim, but, in contrast, make absolutely no reference to the perp which is predominantly “black crime.”

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 168).

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Altair, #Fomalhaut, #September, #unclear sky,

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

Around September there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Deneb close to the Celestial North pole and Fomalhaut in the Southern sky. These stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.

To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its September marking on its rim pointing towards the ground as illustrated here.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for September on the rim (at 6 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of bright stars Vega, Deneb [1], Cassiopeia constellation, bright star Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Cassiopeia goes highest around 01am.

The bisector of the M shaped Cassiopeia goes through the Northern Celestial pole. The Northern Celestial pole is almost 30 degree below Cassiopeia.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Figure 2: Polar Inversion map of Northern Celestial 3/4 sphere.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Southern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its September marking on its rim pointing towards the ground as illustrated here.

Sky map Southern 3/4 sphere

Figure: Polar Inversion map of Southern Celestial 3/4 sphere.

An observer has to align the polar map with marking for September on the rim pointing downward as illustrated here. An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see Achernar [1] rising highest around 2am. Southern Celestial pole is the midpoint of Achernar and the two Pointers and is about 30 degree from Achernar.

 

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

A observer in the tropic should already know the two brightest stars Scorpius Antares (at the heart) and Scorpius Shaula (at the stinger end) of the Scorpius [1]. The straight line from Antares to Shaula goes through the bright star Fomalhaut which is of 60 degree distances from both Scorpius Shaula and Altair [1] which is a star of July and is close to the Celestial equator.

Figure 2: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Fomalhaut and its nearby stars.

The bisector of the angle Shaula, Altair, Fomalhaut points to the Southern Celestial pole.

Southern Celestial pole is is of 90 degree distance from Altair and of equal 60 degree from both Scorpius Shaula and Fomalhaut.

5. Visibility of the stars.

Scorpius Altairs and Scorpius Shaula are stars of June that set close to midnight when viewed from tropical zone. Altair is a star of July that sets close to 02 am. Fomalhaut is visible for nearly the whole night in September.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around July, posted on 2018, May 13.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around April, posted on 2018, April 12.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[5]. , posted on

[6]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[7].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

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Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 149)

#find North, #finding North, #find true North, #North, #true North, #navigation, #find time, #time, #Sun, #fingers,

Finding true North and time from the Sun with your fingers.

There are times when you neither have your watch nor can use any magnetic compass in the location but you want to find out the North-South directions and the time. This method is useful for those such difficult situations. Those situations may arise if you get lost without having your watch while traveling or if you find yourself without your watch while traveling inside a bus or a train. The method from this article gives both the true North direction and the local time from the position of the Sun using only your fingers.

Required preparatory practices

1. Practice holding each of your hands in the three principal postures as illustrated in the following three figures.

Summer Solstice

Equinox

Winter Solstice

Figures: Hand postures for Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice. Click on individual figure to enlarge.

If this practice cannot be carried out due to body deformity or illness (such as rheumatism) then some other method of finding North should be used instead.

The equinox posture is to be used around Mar 21st and Sep 23rd equinoxes while Summer and Winter Solstice postures are to be used around your local Summer and Winter solstices respectively.

The index finger in these postures is always aligned with the forearm and is to be kept in line with the line from the elbow to the tip of the index finger.

The angle between the index and the middle fingers should have value of:
90 degrees for Equinox posture
90-23= 67degrees for Winter Solstice posture and
90+23= 113 degrees for Summer Solstice posture. The above angles for Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice postures are equal to the angles between a clock hand pointing at 0 minutes and
19 minutes,
15 minutes,
11 minutes respectively. These angles are represented by angles between positions of watch hands on a watch face shown in two following figures.

EcoDriveDuo

Summer Solstice

EcodriveDuo2

Winter Solstice

Figures: Angles between fingers for hand postures at Summer Solstice, Equinox and Winter Solstice are represented by angles between positions of watch hands on this watch face. The long white hand pointing at 0 minute of the watch-face represents the direction of the left index finger of the user of this method while the long red hand represents the direction of his left middle finger (see text).

The long white hand pointing at 0 minute of the watch-face represents the direction of the left index finger of the user of this method while the long red hand represents the direction of his left middle finger.

The angle between the hands on each watch-face has been chosen to match the angle between the line to the Sun on the respective date and the line to the Celestial pole below the horizon. The angle between the red hand and the thick white hand pointing at 15 minutes represent the declination angle of the Sun (or its negative, depending on the observer being in the Southern or Northern terrestrial hemisphere). The variation of that angle through various dates of the year can be found in previous blogs [1,2].

solar-declination-by-a-watch-face

Figure: Determining solar declination using a watch face. (The lines “SOLAR DECLINATION Its rough estimate is required for Fine Alignment of the watch” are to be ignored.)

2. Determine the slope to your Celestial pole.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage. The cage rotates around the Celestial axis (in cyan-blue color) joining the its two points called the Celestial poles. The horizontal ground of an observer at the center of the celestial sphere is represented by the horizontal great circle of the Celestial sphere while his line of sight to the Celestial pole is represented by the cyan-blue arrow.

The slope from level ground surface to the line of sight to the visible Celestial pole is called the latitude of your place. Practice recognizing it.

Find a level ground. On a clear night set up a stick pointing from the ground to the Celestial pole. In the Northern hemisphere the Celestial pole has a star (Polaris) while in the Southern hemisphere it is only a point on the geometrical figure formed by circum-polar stars. Such a stick is constructed as a shadow rod in any “builder clock”.

Figure: A “builder clock”. The shadow rod of this clock is set to point towards the Celestial pole in the sky.

The inclined shaddow rod on a “Builder Clock” points toward the Celestial pole in the sky when the clock is properly setup with its base in the true North-South direction.

The angle between the stick pointing to the Celestial pole and the ground is called the latitude of the location. The angle between the stick and a vertical plumb line is (90° – latitude). You need to practice recognizing this angle. (Knowing this angle also help you quickly find the Celestial pole from the stars).

Figure: The Northern Celestial pole is the center of this map of the Northern sky.

Figure: The Southern Celestial pole is the center of this map of the Southern sky.

3. Practice reading in degrees the angles between positions of hands on a clock face.

The angle between a hand pointing at 0 minute and another one pointing at
5 minutes is 30 degrees,
10 minutes is 60 degrees,
15 minutes is 90 degrees,
20 minutes is 120 degrees,
25 minutes is 150 degrees,
30 minutes is 180 degrees.

8 Steps for finding true North and time.

1. Determine the current season in the year to select the appropriate hand posture.

The equinox posture is to be used around Mar 21st and Sep 23rd equinoxes while Summer and Winter Solstice postures are to be used around your local Summer and Winter soltices respectively (Each posture can be used for its whole month and a solstice posture can also be used for two adjacent months.).

If the season in the year cannot be determined (as in the case of inhabitants living in artificial environment for years), use the hand posture for equinox days.

2. Determine whether you are in the Northern or Southern hemisphere.

3. Determine if you are in the morning (the Sun is rising before noon) or in the afternoon (the Sun is setting after noon)

This step is needed to select the appropriate hand for the task.

4. Select and use only the appropriate hand for the task:

4a. Northern hemisphere: LEFT hand in the morning THEN RIGHT hand in the afternoon.
4b.Southern hemisphere:RIGHT hand in the morning THEN LEFT hand in the afternoon.

5. Point the index finger to the Sun with your middle finger in its comfortable, nearly horizontal position.

6. Twist the forearm and hand until the middle finger makes with the level ground an angle equal to the latitude angle.

This is illustrated in the two figures.

Find North by Left Hand

Figure: Finding the meridian (true North-South) line with the left hand.

Find North by Right Hand

Figure: Finding the meridian (true North-South) line with the right hand.

7. The projection of the middle finger onto the ground now points exactly away from the terrestrial pole of your hemisphere.

The middle finger now points to the Celestial pole below the horizon, in other terms it points directly away from the visible Celestial pole in the sky.

8. Looking along that direction pointed by the middle finger and imagining a 24-hour clock dial attached to that axis give a natural clock giving time in the day.

Find time by divider

Figure: The line CB to the Sun form the hour hand of a 24 hour clock. This clock face is for Northern hemisphere. In Northern hemisphere the hand sweeps clockwise while in Southern hemisphere it sweeps anticlockwise.

The time given by the natural clock is the local time which has noon when the Sun is highest in the sky. Local time differs from the zonal time selected by the government.

9. Around noon time, either left or right hand can be used. The terrestrial North South line is determined with least accuracy around noon time.

10. On the terrestrial equator, either selection of 4a or 4b can be applied. The middle finger of the selection 4a points at true terrestrial South while that of 4b points at true terrestrial North.

Figure: Summary of the method of finding true North and time from the Sun.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., posted on May 6, 2015.

wpid-dividermwp3e2c2.jpg

find North by the Sun

[2]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/02/13/good-approximation-to-solar-declination-by-a-watch-face/

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Finding North from unclear sky around July.

Finding North from unclear sky around July.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.130).

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Vega, #Deneb, #Altair, #July, #unclear sky

Around July there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Vega, Altair and Deneb. These three stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.
To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its July marking (at 4 o’clock position) on its rim pointing towards the ground.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for July on the rim (at 4 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of three bright stars Vega, Deneb, Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Vega and Deneb go highest around 24 hr.

The bisector of the line Vega Deneb goes through the Northern Celestial pole. The pole is almost of equal distances of 45 degrees from each of them.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its July marking (at 8 o’clock position) on its rim pointing towards the ground.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for July on the rim (at 8 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see the Southern Cross Pointers highest around 18 hr, then Antares around 20 hr. Achernar is seen rising before Sunrise. The midpoint between the Pointers and Achernar is almost the Southern Celestial pole.

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

A observer in the tropic should already know the very bright star Bootes and the bright star Antares in the Scorpius constellation used in April.

Figure 1: Photograph of Spica (near the bottom edge), Bootes Arcturus (near the right edge) and Antares (1/8 of the width from the left edge) forming a triangle. Celestial North is at 01 o’clock position (30 degree clockwise from vertical) in this photo. There is a very bright planet (1/2 from left edge, 1/3 from bottom) traveling on the Ecliptic in this photo.

Figure 2: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

On the trailing side of Bootes Arcturus and Antares, (click the above Mercator map for details) there is a bright star of equal distances of 60 degrees to both of them. This star is Altair, which is as bright as Antares.

Following the line Antares to Bootes Arcturus, turning anti-clockwise by 90 degrees at Bootes Arcturus and traveling for 60 degrees takes us to Vega, which is as bright as Bootes Arcturus. The line (Antares, Arcturus) is nearly at right angle to the almost straight line (Spica, Arcturus, Vega).

The line (Bootes Arcturus, Antares) is nearly parallel to the line (Vega, Altair) which lie slightly nearer to Bootes Arcturus.

Vega is as bright as Bootes Arcturus while Altair is as bright as Antares.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Figure 3: Polar Inversion map of Northern Celestial 3/4 sphere. The line (Vega, Altair) is 30 degrees long and is nearly parallel to the line (Bootes Arcturus, Antares) which is 60 degrees long.

Rotate the line (Altair, Vega) about Altair by 10 degrees counter-clockwise give the great circle through the two Celestial poles. Northern Celestial pole is nearer to Vega and is 80 degrees from Altair. Southern Celestial pole is nearer to Altair and is 100 degrees from Altair.

Trailing 2 hour behind Vega is the bright star Deneb (see the Mercator star-map). (Vega, Altair, Deneb) is known as the Summer Triangle. The bisector of the angle Vega, Altair, Deneb points to the Northern Celestial pole.

Bright Stars 20 Plus 2

Figure 4: Table of 20 brightest +2 stars in order of appearance.

5. Visibility of the stars.

Altair is visible for nearly the whole night in July. The Summer Triangle is visible for nearly the whole night in July. Click on the Mercator map for details.

6. CAUTION with planets
The Moon and planets travel on the Ecliptic. Observers should take care not to mistake any planet for Antares in the Scorpius constellation.
A planet is always brighter than any star, including Sirius, moves from night to night, and does not twinkle in clear sky.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around April, posted on 2018, April 12.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[4]. , posted on

[5]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[6].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

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Finding accurate direction by a watch

Method for finding accurate directions by a common analogue watch.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.120).

WatchCompass_22NL

#find North, #finding North, #compass, #direction, #by Sun, #bisector, #using watch, #with watch, #tilted watch, #inclined watch, #navigation, #without compass

This method uses a common 12-hour watch with analogue face for finding directions. Unlike the traditional method of using the hour hand of a flat lying watch, my method uses a watch tilted from the vertical and gives better accuracy for both North and South hemispheres including tropical zones. When applied to the arctic and antarctic regions, the watch is tilted by more than 67 degrees and lies almost flat on the ground; it becomes the traditional method using flat lying watch.
This method use the position of the Sun, time and known latitude angle to determine directions and Sun declination (therefore estimation of current month of the year).
The method for Northern latitudes is described below.

Method for Northern latitudes.

DirectionBySun_12N

The red line is the bisector. The line CB is drawn on a card representing the half-plane to enable accurate alignment to the Sun

WatchCompass_22NL

The bisector is in the opposite direction of a corresponding 24 hr hand on a 24 hr dial

watchcompassJ

Figure: Summary of finding North by a watch. Red hand is the bisector of 0 hr direction and the hour hand; green hand is its reflection across the (6-12) axis. Axis C-BN for Northern hemisphere is parallel to red hand at equinox days and is (raised above)/(dipped below) the watch dial by 23 degrees at local summer/winter solstice. Axis C-BS for Southern hemisphere is parallel to green hand at equinox days and is (raised above)/(dipped below) the watch dial by 23 degrees at local summer/winter solstice. Green drawing marks are for Southern hemisphere and are the mirror reflection of red drawing marks.

Method for Southern latitudes.

Red hand is the bisector of 0 hr direction and the hour hand; green hand is the reflection of red hand across the (6-12) axis.

In the southern hemisphere points the green hand instead of the red hand.
No ambiguity in equatorial latitudes.
The watch is placed almost vertically in equatorial latitudes by both methods. Methods for both Northern and Southern latitudes gives exactly the same outcomes.

Extension application for both hemispheres.

Figure: Summary of finding North by a watch.

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The Southern Cross Pointer stars

 

The Southern Cross Pointer stars.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.111).

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

#find North, #finding North, #navigation, #alpha Centauri, #Agena, #Southern Cross, #pointers, #constellation, #Scorpius,

The Southern Cross Pointer Stars.

Celestial navigators who do not use declination and right ascension begin their navigation by learning the various bright, easily unmistakable constellations in the sky (There are no more than 10 to learn beginning with Orion constellation. and Scorpius constellation.). In the Southern Hemisphere, the Pointers to Southern Cross constellation are next to be learnt as they are very bright and most easy to identify.

The two Pointer stars are two very bright stars (alpha Centauri and Agena) in the Southern Celestial hemisphere. They are very useful as they help identifying nearby navigational stars and consequently finding Southern Celestial pole for navigation.

These two bright stars are circumpolar and are both 30 degrees from to the Southern Celestial pole. They are seen late night in February, all night in May, early night in September.

Inhabitants of Southern hemisphere need only to identify Alpha Centauri (brighter star of the pair), Agena (dimmer star of the pair), and Achernar in the clockwise direction (all at 60° South declination) to find the Southern Celestial pole which is at the center of the circle of 30 degrees in radius through these three stars. Achernar is almost 60 degree from the Pointers (alpha Centauri, Agena) and is opposite them across the Southern Celestial Pole.

Figure: Pointer stars pointing to the Southern Cross on a Polar Skymap for Southern hemisphere.

Extending the line alpha Centauri-Agena (from brighter to dimmer Pointer) by 8 degrees takes us to the Southern Cross Constellation. Then turning clockwise by 50 degrees and extending by an additional 50 degrees takes us to the very bright Canopus star which is nearly 40 degrees from the Southern Celestial pole.

In the opposite direction, extending the line Agena-alpha Centauri (from dimmer Pointer to brighter Pointer) by about 30 degrees takes us to the stinger tail of the large, distinctive Scorpius constellation (this line goes on for another 40 degrees to reach the bright tropical star Altair). From the direction of the line Agena-alpha Centauri (from dimmer to brighter Pointer) turn clockwise by 50 degrees and travel by about 45 degrees from alpha Centauri takes us to the moderately bright star Antares at the heart of the Scorpion.

Figure: Locating an individual star in a crowded area is easily carried out using a folded piece of cardboard: The folding line is aimed at the first known star, one cardboard flap is aligned to contain the second known star. The other flap is then opened to the required angle (marked 1) and the angle to the target star (marked 2) can be read.

2. The Southern Cross.

The Southern Cross is a useful navigational constellation. Its long axis goes through the Southern Celestial pole (which is also nearly on the bisector of the Pointer Stars and is also nearly on the line through Sirius and Canopus) in one direction and goes through the Northern Celestial pole in the opposite direction.

Turning slightly by 20 degrees anticlockwise toward the trailing’ side (Eastern side) from this direction to the Northern Celestial pole and travel by a distance of about 50 degrees from the Southern Cross takes us to the bright star Spica. Turning more anticlockwise towards the Eastern side by an additional 15 degrees from that direction and traveling an additional distance of about 30 degrees takes us next to the very bright star Bootes Arcturus (The direction from Spica to Bootes Arcturus is pointing about 25 degrees to the trailing side, Eastward, from the direction of a great circle arc toward the Northern Celestial pole.).

3. The dates of Pointers to Southern Cross.

Figure 1: The dates of Agena and alpha Centauri from the table of star dates.

The Pointer stars are seen in late night in February, all night in May, and in early night in September.

4. Taking photos of the Pointers.

Figure 1: The Pointers and Southern Cross Constellation are in the lower right quarter of this phpto taken with a Samsung Galaxy Note 2. The original photo has been digitally enhanced.

The Pointers and Southern Cross constellation are adequately bright and their photos can be taken using a smart phone such as a Samsung Galaxy Note 2 with no extra attachment.

The Pointers and 3 corner stars of the vertical Southern Cross are seen on the bottom right of the above two pictures. The dimmer fourth stars of the Southern Cross can be seen in the second photo. Antares is the bright star near the middle of the left border of the second picture. Antares and the front part of the Scorpius constellation are located near the center of the left border of the second picture (The very bright dot near the upper left corner of the picture is a planet.).

Figure 2: Photos of the Pointers and Southern Cross Constellation taken with a Samsung Galaxy Note 2. The original photos have been digitally enhanced.

The two bright Pointers are seen on the bottom right of this picture 2. The two brightest spots on the left half of this picture are two planets traveling on the Ecliptic. Antares is the bright star near the middle of the half left of this picture. Vertically above Antares is the front part of the Scorpius constellation. Vertically below Antares is the bright stinging tail of the Scorpius.

Figures 3: Photo of the Scorpius Constellation taken with a Samsung Galaxy Note 2 at the same time. The original photos have been digitally enhanced.

The Scorpius constellation just mentioned is captured in the center of the third photo. There are four brightest dots on the top of the picture. The far right and far left dots are very bright and are two planets traveling on the ecliptic. The planets on the ecliptic sometimes make confusing the identification of the stars at the front of this constellation.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[2]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[3].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

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Adding Longitude and Latitude Lines to a map

Adding Longitude and Latitude Lines to a map

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.78).

#find North, #GPS, #navigation, #off grid, #adding, #longitude, #latitude, #coordinate, #lines, #map,

Adding Longitude and Latitude Lines to a map.

Locating where you are using the internet is great but there are times when you have no mean to connect to the internet and you have to use GPS for positioning without any assistance via the internet. Such a situation may arise when you have no internet coverage or when going hiking.

If you want to use your GPS off-grid with any map, you need to draw on top of the map an accurate system of regularly spaced longitude and latitude coordinate lines.

This posting shows how to add the lines.

1. Making a map graduated with Longitude and Latitude Lines.

1. Choose a map with your required resolution and range. The resolution differs for different application: For city street maps resolution should be better than 2m, for country town maps, resolurion only need to be better than 5m as houses are widely separated, for touring, exploring maps, resolution can be upto the (1/10) of the visual range, etc…

2. Make sure that the top of the map points to true North. (In some countries, maps are deliberately oriented at angle to true North, probably for security reasons.)

Figure: Openstreetmap for Melbourne with 3 airport landmarks. Map is used under Open License from Open Street Map, the data are owned by Open Street Map Contributors.

3. On that map, find some unmistakable features such as a well known Airport or Helipad, a Light House, a TV Transmission Tower, a Town Hall, Churches, Schools, Cottages in a forrest, sharply defined mountain peaks, trail intersections… with known longitudes and latitudes. Their coordinates are usually given on the Internet or or easily extracted from Google Map or Navigating Apps.
Find two to four such fearures located near the four extreme corners of your map. They will be used as land marks.

Ecample:

The 3 landmarks that can be used here are:

a. Melbourne Tullamarine airport, Elevation AMSL 434 ft / 132 m, Coordinates 37°40′24″S 144°50′36″E

b. Melbourne Moorabin airport, Elevation AMSL 50 ft / 15 m, Coordinates 37°58′33″S 145°06′08″E

c. Melbourne Essendon airport, Elevation AMSL 282 ft / 86 m, Coordinates 37°43′41″S 144°54′07″E

4. On a separate fresh sheet of paper make a coordinate grid of longitude and latitude covering your range.
On this sheet with grid but no map, mark the coordinates of your land marks.

Figure: Melbourne Tullamarine and Moorabin airports on a grid map.

5. Check that the shape of the figures formed by the land marks are similar in both the grid sheet and the map. You may have to stretch or shrink the grid vertically and then horizontally to have a fit. The figures should be similar if no mistakes have been made. If the shapes are similar you can proceed to the next step.

6a, If the map and grid are both digital, they can be superimposed in the computer to produce the following map with added coordinate lines:

Figure: Openstreetmap for Melbourne with added cooodinates. Map has been modified from original map used under Open License from Open Street Map, the data are owned by Open Street Map Contributors.

The added lines are on round figure coordinates and are 2 minutes of arc apart. The intersection nearest to the NW of Tullamarine airport has coordinate (144°50′E, 37°40′S ).

6b. If you are using printed map: Join two distant landmarks on the coordinate sheet and notice where the lines of “minute of longititude” and of “minute of latitude” intersect it

7. If you are using printed map: Reproduce that line, with all its intersecting points, on the actual paper map.

8. If you are using printed map: From these intersecting points project corresponding vertical lines to make the “minute of longititude” lines and horizontal lines to make “minute of latitude” lines.

9. The map is now graduated with longitude and laritude lines.

10. Its grid can now be used as a base to draw finer grids for detail maps with higher resolutions.

2. Using GPS with maps.

You can download a (preferably topological) map of your area to practice drawing the coordinate lines, the constant altitude lines and learn about the accuracy of the values of longitude, latitude and altitude given by your GPS apps.

It is preferable to use topographic maps with old fashioned land marks (such as churches, tall towers …). Topographic maps give the additional constant ground altitude contours (relative to some mean sea level surface). Constant altitude curves are the faint brown curves on the map illustrated here. The height of each contour is given by a small number. The altitude values of 20m and 10m have been highlighted in this example map by two red circles.

Figure: Opentopomap for the area in my test. Map is used under Open License from Open Street Map, the data are owned by Open Street Map Contributors.

References

[1]. tonytran2015, Using GPS in off-grid situations., posted December 6, 2016

[2]. tonytran2015, Measuring angles and distances for outdoor survival, survivaltricks.wordpress.com,

https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/06/29/measuring-angles-and-distances-for-outdoor-survival/, posted 29/6/2016.

[3]. tonytran2015, Selecting and using magnetic compasses, survivaltricks.wordpress.com,

https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/09/selecting-and-using-magnetic-compasses/, posted 09/7/2016.

[4]. , BBC News, UK radio disturbance caused by satellite network bug, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35463347, 2 February 2016.

Added after 2018 Nov 26:

The Thors’ son urged people travelling to remote locations without mobile coverage to download a GPS application to their phones ahead of their journey, as well as an offline map for their destination.

[5]. https://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2018-11-26/german-tourists-died-central-australia-walked-17km-heat-stress/10554408

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Finding North Direction and Time using Geological Features, plants and animals

Finding North Direction and Time using Geological Features, plants and animals

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.70).

#find North, #time, #wind, #cloud, #tree, #find North by moss #moss, #bird, #roosting, #gecko, #chameleon, #croaking.

Finding North Direction and Time by Geological Features, plants and animals.

There are many different ways to find North direction and time [1-9], the following methods are currently less known but have been very popular in the past.

1. Geological formation.

For example, if there is a distant mountain range on the West (example only) or a seashore on the East (example only) then any of them can be used a directional pointer.

A river, a road, a railway line in view can also be used as a direction pointer.

The side of a nearby hill with more plant life is also the side illuminated by the morning Sun.

2. Winds.

A large geological formation such as a distant mountain range can create a year round daily winds of constant directions that can be used as directional indicators.

The smell of a wind (salty smell, plant smell) can also reveal where it comes from (the sea, a forrest with a particular smell) and consequently its direction.

Even the sounds in the wind can also reveal where it comes from and consequently its direction.

3. Permanent Cloud Formation.

Permanent Cloud Formation on top of geological features can tell earth dwellers their positions and directions. This method is used by islanders in the oceans.

4. The Growth of Trees and Mosses.

Trees and moss use sunlight to photo-synthesize their nutrients and body building substances. Their parts grow best with water, sunlight and warmth, We can use tree features to tell directions: The sunny half of the trees has thicker veins, grains to support more leaves synthesizing nutrients. Trees bear more flowers and fruits on their sides lit by the morning Sun.

However, caution should be exercised as a permanent strong wind blowing the same way for the whole year may affect the growth of trees.

5. The Growth of Mosses.

 moss on west side of tree trunc

Figure: Moss growth on West side of tree trunc.

Little Moss on sunrise side of tree

Figure: East side of the same tree trunc.

Mosses use sunlight to photo-synthesize their nutrients and body building substances. Mosses and trees have evolved to have different diurnal cycles and their photo-syntheses are efficient at different times: Trees prefer and grow best in morning sunlight while mosses afternoon sunlight.

Mosses need both Dampness and some right amount of Afternoon Sunlight (Photo-Synthesis by mosses is better in the afternoon). Therefore they grow on a damp tree trunc on the side that CAN RECEIVE AFTERNOON SUNLIGHT. (However, too much afternoon SUNLIGHT CAN DRY OUT DAMPNESS and KILL THE MOSS !) The difference between Eastern and Western growth of mossses is usually not profound but can be noticed. This can be seen from the above pictures. In these figures taken in Southern hemisphere, moss grows on the South West side.

Moss growth is also affected by prevailing winds which dry out tree truncs unevenly. Finding directions by Mosses should only be practiced as a last resort when all Celestial and compass methods cannot be applied and when there is certainly no permanent prevailing wind drying out the trunc unevenly.

4. Foraging by Birds

Birds want to have longer foraging time and warmth. That is why some types of birds even do yearly migration to the other terrestrial hemisphere.

At the first sight of sunlight in the morning, birds fly up and toward the Sun (eastwards or almost eastwards) . They forage in the fields there, eating young shoots that grew overnight, then fly home when they have been fully fed. Birds come back to their nests, checking them for unwanted invaders, do their droppings then sleep well before sunset time. (Only few nocturnal types of birds have good night vision).

5. Nesting by Birds

Birds build their nests on the warm side of a foliage.

In temperate zones, their nests point away from the poles. Bird dropping reveals the locations of bird nests relative to the host tree.

6. Man made dwellings.

Free standing country houses are usually oriented to receive maximum morning sunlight.

7. Birds Tweetting and Chickens Roosting.

Birds tweeting and chicken roosting have been used as reliable time markers in the past, before watches are popularly available. They mean the birds have seen first glimpse of sunlight.

Country people in Vietnam used to start their days on the roosting of chickens at the first sight of a brightened horizon before dawn.

8. Geckos and chameleons croaking.

Geckos and chameleons see best and croak at noon in tropical countries. Their croaking is a fairly accurate noon signal (with 30 minutes accuracy).

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Using GPS in off-grid situations., https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/06/using-gps-in-off-grid-situations/, posted December 6, 2016

[2]. tonytran2015, Selecting and using magnetic compasses, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/09/selecting-and-using-magnetic-compasses/, posted 09/7/2016.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/08/28/finding-north-and-time-by-stars/ , posted on August 28, 2015.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars in the tropics, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/finding-north-and-time-by-stars-in-the-tropics/, posted on May 25, 2016

[5]. tonytran2015, Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/09/using-polarized-light-to-locate-the-sun-hidden-behind-clouds/, posted on May 9, 2015

[6]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/19/finding-accurate-directions-using-a-watch/, posted May 19, 2015

[7]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/06/finding-directions-and-time-using-the-sun-and-a-dividing-compass/, posted on May 6, 2015.

[8]. Shadow stick navigation and graph of solar paths, posted August 19, 2016

[9]. Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver.

Added after 2018 April 25:

[10]. https://nannatrips.com/2017/10/16/magnetic-termites-of-australia/

Relevant divider43.jpgSURVIVAL blogs:

Finding accurate directions using a watch, posted on May 19, 2015

Finding North direction and time using the hidden Sun via the Moon . Posted on July 6, 2015

, posted on Circumpolar Stars Nth

Finding North and time by stars. Posted on August 28, 2015

Finding North and time with unclear sky. Posted on October 17, 2015.

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Finding North with a lensatic compass, posted on August 21, 2017

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, Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver, The Scorpius constellation, Quick fire making using sunlight.,The Orion constellation, Rice as emergency food , Using GPS in off-grid situations, Identifying moderately bright navigational stars, Slide Sky-Map for displaying tropical stars,…all.

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Finding North in the polar zones using Equatorial Stars and the Sun.

Finding North in the polar zones using Equatorial Stars and the Sun

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.66).

#find North, #finding North, #polar zone, #arctic zone, #Equatorial stars, #Sun, #Viking, #navigation .

Finding North in polar regions using Equatorial Stars and the Sun.

The general principles in Finding North still apply for each familiar method. However Finding North direction in polar regions has its own problems and it is not as simple as for temperate zones due to difficulties caused by steep magnetic lines not pointing to rotational poles, by the closeness of the upper Celestial pole to the zenith, by long extended day time, by aurora light, by aurora interference with radio wave receivers in GPS units.

When those familiar methods encounter problems the method of Finding North by Tropical stars and the Sun can still work and maintain its precision. The Viking may had used this technique in their long sea voyages many centuries ago.

1. The two polar zones

The two polar zones cover any area with absolute value of latitude higher than 66°33′. That is all their points are less than 23°27′ from one of the two poles. The Northern polar (arctic) zone covers parts of Greenland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, U.S. Alaska, Canada with many of their cities. The Southern polar (antarctic) zone covers parts of Antarctica continent (with Argentinian stations, UK Rother station, etc …).
The ratio of the lengths of Day versus Night varies with a yearly cycle on any point of the Earth. In Arctic zone, it reaches 0-100 for some period centered on Winter solstice (on 21 December ) when the Solar path is totally below the horizon. The ratio then varies from 1-99 to 99-1. It then reaches 100-0 for some other period centered on Summer solstice (on 21 June ) when the Solar path is totally above the horizon. The ratio then varies from 99-1 to 1-99 and reaches 0-100 again.
It is similar for Antarctic zone except for the 6 months time difference between the two polar zones.

2. Finding North by GPS.

Find North by a GPS

Figure: A GPS screen.

The easiest way to find North in a polar region is to use the GPS apps on smart phones or on purpose made GPS units.

GPS compass directions are calculated from the change in terrestrial coordinates when you move. The minimum movement distance is only about 5m.

GPS compass directions are true directions and are different from and independent of magnetic compass directions.

However, GPS units may run out of battery, be non-operational during war times, be under heavy interference from polar aurora storms. A non-GPS back up method is still necessary.

3. Finding North by a magnetic compass.

Find North by a compass

Figure: A magnetic compass.

3a. The magnetic poles are not exactly at the North and South poles of the Earth. They are currently in Canada and near to New Zealand respectively. Users of magnetic compasses should know how to compensate for this.

3b. Magnetic lines are also nearly vertically inclined in polar regions making normal compasses sticky with their needles and they may have to be replaced by cruder magnetic rods hung on wire threaded through holes near to their mid-points.

3c. Aurora in the sky changes very slowly and can be used as overhead navigational marks juat like permanent clouds.

4. Finding North using Polaris.

mercator8fx1.6polarc30.jpg

Figure: The Northern and Southern Polar skymaps are represented by two circular discs here.

A real dipper versus Big and Little Dipper constellations

Figure: Photo of a real dipper. Inset: The Big Dipper and Little Dipper constellations.

4a. Polaris in the Little Dipper is right on the North Celestial pole. The North Celestial pole is in the Northern direction of all vertical plumb lines. If the star can be obscured by any plumb line then you eye is exactly on the South of the line. Near to the pole, Polaris is close to the upper extension of any vertical plumb line and it is hard to obscure it by some vertical plumb line.

4b. The altitude of Polaris is most easily read with a Bubble Sextant (Aircraft Sextant) or with a Theodelite (for higher accuracy). The direction with smallest value of altitude of Polaris is Northern direction.
The method is easily applicable at night time but Polaris cannot be seen during day time and during aurora storms.

5. Basis of finding North by Tropical stars.

Find North with Orion Equatorial starsFigure: Panoramic view of the Celestial Equator and the Tropical band from the Arctic zone in December. Stars travel from Front Left to Front Right. The directions and Solar times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the picture are N(0hr)-E(06hr)-S(12hr)-W(18hr)-N(24hr).

5a. Any point on the Earth sees exactly half of the Celestial Equator above its horizon. The angle between the plane of this half circle and the horizontal one is equal to (90°- latitude).
The Celestial Equator is inclined to the ground and is below the horizon in the North direction in the Northern hemisphere.

5b. Equatorial stars such as the Central Belt Star of the Orion travel along this circle once every day. They rise and set exactly in the exact East and exact West directions respectively.

Find North with Scorpius Equatorial starsFigure: Panoramic view of the Celestial Equator and the Tropical band from the Antarctic zone in June. Stars travel from Front Right to Front Left. The directions and Solar times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the picture are S(24hr)-W(18hr)-N(12hr)-E(06hr)-S(0hr).



5c. Any tropical star (any star which is no further than 23°27′ from the Celestial Equator) travels along one large (but not great) circle in the sky every day. The circle is “parallel” to the Celestial Equator.

5d. The elevation/altitude of the star varies daily with an amplitude equal to (90°-observer’s latitude) about its daily mean (which is nearly equal to its Declination multiplied by the sine of observer’s latitude)

5e. The North Souih line is the bisector of two directions pointing to any two positions having equal elevations of the same star. The common elevation can be conveniently chosen to be the mean of its 24hr values.

6. Solar trajectory on the Celestial Sphere

The Sun travels along one large (but not great) circle in the sky every day. The circle is “parallel” to the Celestial Equator. The circular Solar path drifts to its most Northern position at 23°27′ latitude on 21 June solstice then drifts to its most Southern position at 23°27′ latitude on 21 December.

At equinox times, the Sun is exactly on the Celestial Equator and rises and sets exactly like an equatorial star.

Locating the hidden Sun by polarized lightFigure: Locating the hidden Sun by polarized light from bright patches of the sky.

Knowing the trajectory of the Sun, you can locate it using polarizing sunglasses even when it is hidden and under the horizon (see ref. [5], Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view).

7. Measuring solar altitude with a stretched hand on an extended arm.

A hand with stretched out fingers hold on its extended arm sustains an angle of about 12 degrees and is a very convenient mean for measuring Solar elevation (altitude) angle in polar regions.

8. Variation of Solar altitude/elevation during the day.

Solar elevation/altitude varies daily with an amplitude equal to (90-latitude) about its daily mean (which is nearly equal to Solar Declination of the day multiplied by sine of local latitude).

You can tell where is the Sun on its daily cycle by measuring its altitude with a stretched hand on an extended arm.

As the Sun travels on a known wavy line its altitude gives both its compass direction and the corresponding time of the day.

The directions and times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the first panoramic picture (for Arctic regions) are N(0hr)-E(06hr)-S(12hr)-W(18hr)-N(24hr).

For Antarctic regions the directions and times corresponding to the scale on the bottom of the second panoramic picture are S(24hr)-W(18hr)-N(12hr)-E(06hr)-S(0hr).

9. Time estimation from Solar altitude

Solar altitude may give a better time estimation near to Sunrise and Sunset.

The time is 6hr or 18hr when the altitude of the Sun crosses its mean value.

10. Distinguishing AM from PM

When using the Sun for navigation, it is important to know whether the Sun is ascending (AM) or descending (PM).

10a.A 24hr sub-dial on a clock face is certainly useful in telling AM and PM.

10b. Ambient air temperature after receiving daylight radiation is also usually higher in PM time than in AM time.

10c. There are different sets of stars in the sky for AM and PM in the night.

10d. Birds activities are different in AM and PM.

10e. Your biological clock (circadian rhythm) may help distinguishing AM and PM.

11. Finding North with a watch in a polar region

Finding North with a watch

Figures: Finding North with a watch for antarctic and arctic zones.

Finding North with a watch needs a modification: If you can travel to the nearest pole in 2hr, you have to remember that the 6-12 line on the watch points along the meridian line of your home city, not toward the Pole of the Earth. Indeed, you can travel around the pole but that 6-12 line keeps its direction along the meridian of your home city.

The watch face can be simply laid horizontally as in the original “Scout method” without generating any noticeable directional error.

Figure: A map of the arctic from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/rediscover/resources). All meridional lines converge at the pole.

12. Finding North with a divider in a polar region

solar declination from a watch face

Figure: Estimating Solar declination by drawing a watch face with a subdial.

Finding North by a divider

Figure: Finding North by a divider.

The divider method is still applicable for finding direction and time but requires high accuracy in Solar declination and latitude angle for setting the divider.

A small plumb line hanging from the stem of the divider can improve the accuracy for its latitude angle setting.

With the above additional plumb line, the divider can measure the altitude of the Sun to give a good estimate of time.

13. Finding North with an AM Broadcast radio receiver in a polar region

AM radio usable for Finding North direction

Figure: An AM Broadcasting radio receiver wirh an internal ferrite rod antenna.

The method of finding direction using an AM radio receiver tuned to nearby broadcasting ([8]) is useful near to cities with AM broadcasts in polar regions. The transmission is not effected by low visibility from bad weather. You need a map of the region with AM transmitters as landmarks.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Using GPS in off-grid situations., https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/06/using-gps-in-off-grid-situations/, posted December 6, 2016

[2]. tonytran2015, Selecting and using magnetic compasses, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/09/selecting-and-using-magnetic-compasses/, posted 09/7/2016.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North direction and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/08/28/finding-north-and-time-by-stars/ , posted on August 28, 2015.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars in the tropics, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/finding-north-and-time-by-stars-in-the-tropics/, posted on May 25, 2016

[5]. tonytran2015, Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/09/using-polarized-light-to-locate-the-sun-hidden-behind-clouds/, posted on May 9, 2015

[6]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/19/finding-accurate-directions-using-a-watch/, posted May 19, 2015

[7]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/06/finding-directions-and-time-using-the-sun-and-a-dividing-compass/, posted on May 6, 2015.

[8]. Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver.

[9]. https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/rediscover/resources.

RELATED SURVIVAL blogs:

Using polarized light to locate the Sun when it is hidden from view. . Posted on May 9, 2015. This is a useful technique.

Using GPS in off-grid situations., posted December 6, 2016

Adding longitude and latitude lines to a map, posted August 23, 2017

Navigating with an AM MW radio receiver, posted January 17, 2017

radio sony

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Good approximation to solar declination by a watch face

Good approximation to solar declination by a watch face

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.53).

#solar declination, #watch face, #multi-dial watch face, #Solar navigation, #find North, #time, #survival.

The value of solar declination is needed for accurate determination of North direction and time using a divider or a watch (references [1], [2]). Good approximation to solar declination is required by the methods to produce accurate results in cold temperate zone and arctic zone. The required value of solar declination can be simply obtained using only a watch face or even the drawing of a watch face on the ground.

1. Method

solar-declination-by-a-watch-face

Figure: Determining solar declination using a watch face. (The lines SOLAR DECLINATION Its rough estimate is required for Fine Alignment of the watch are to be ignored.)

Draw the dial of an upside-down watch face as a small sub-dial of a watch face (on its 3 o’clock side) as in the figure. The radius of the sub-dial should be close to the length of 4 minutes markings on the rim of the main dial.

The four numbers 6, 9, 12, 3 on the rim of the upside-down sub-dial correspond to 21/6, 23/9, 21/12, 21/3 respectively. They are the dates on the calendar. Your current date gives a point on the rim of this sub-dial.

Project the point of your current date horizontally onto the rim of the main dial. The angle from the direction of 3 o’clock to that of a main long hand pointing to the projected point is equal to the angle of solar declination.

The angles from the Northern and Southern Celestial poles to the Sun are just the angles from the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock directions respectively to that of the above main long hand.

2. Applications to survival situations

Most multi-dial watches and chronograph watches already have sub-dials made with the sub-dial radius being close to 4 minute length on the rim of the main dial. This method can be conveniently applied to any such watches having their sub-dials on either the 3 o’clock or 9 o’clock side.

When having no actual watch face, you can draw a watch dial and a sub-dial on the ground to determine solar declination.

Accurate value of solar declination improves the accuracy of the determination of North direction using a divider or a watch (references [1], [2]) when the Sun has low altitude in the cold temperate and arctic zones.

References:

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding directions and time using the Sun and a divider., Additional survival tricks, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/06/finding-directions-and-time-using-the-sun-and-a-dividing-compass/, posted on May 6, 2015.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding accurate directions using a watch, Additional survival tricks, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2015/05/19/finding-accurate-directions-using-a-watch/, posted on May 19, 2015.

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, posted on May 06, 2015 .

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Click here to go to Divider63D400 Home Page (Navigation-Survival-How To-Money).

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