Real life lessons on national economics.

Real life lessons on national economics.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. … ).

The current time is quite interesting as it allows the testing of many economic theories. After that, some theories will gain credential while others may get forgotten.

#inflation, #economy, #Venezuela, #Argentina, #Turkey, #dollar,#currency #yuan, #gold based, #oil based

Real life lessons on national economics.

1. Venezuela and its wealth from oil.

Venezuela was a wealthy country living from its sale of oil. The 1998 Venezuelan government by Hugo Chavez then played with the game of commanding the economy and sent its economy crashing and then into hyperinflation.[1]

“Chavez used the abundant income stream to go on a spending spree as he instituted a large number of entitlement programs using the oil revenues. A strike in 2003 interrupted Chavez’s plans and caused the GDP to crash by 27 percent in just four months. Chavez began nationalizing industries and instituting price controls, which was the beginning on Venezuela’s inflationary spiral as Venezuelans developed a reliance on their government for products and services.” [2]

Once hyperinflation has set in, people would avoid using the rapidly depreciating fiat money, and bartering is the only mean for survival.[3, 4]

“If somebody has lots of one thing and too little of another, an arrangement can be made. I’ve exchanged corn meal for rice with friends from high school, eggs for cooking oil with my sister-in-law. Street vendors barter, too, taking, say, a kilo of sugar as payment for one of flour. There are Facebook pages and chat-room groups devoted to the swap-ability of everything from toothpaste to baby formula.” [5]

This should be a lesson to leftists everywhere [6] that even a once rich economy of Venezuela cannot endure the incessant waste of scare resources to FEEL GOOD on everything politicians can dream of.

2. Argentina with its policy of excessive protection for domestic industries.

In its pursue of industrial self-sufficiency the government had given excessive protection to domestic industries turning them into non-competitive. This caused a shortfall in the productivity and tax contribution. Subsequently the government had to rely on debt or inflation or both. These are the root cause of its current inflation:

” Successive governments from the 1930s to the 1970s pursued a strategy of import substitution to achieve industrial self-sufficiency, ”
“The era of import substitution ended in 1976, but at the same time growing government spending, large wage increases and inefficient production created a chronic inflation that rose through the 1980s… also contributed to the huge foreign debt by the late 1980s, which became equivalent to three-fourths of the GNP” [7]

Import substitution and industrial self-sufficiency are quite respectable aims for its economic policy. Argentinian economy could have benefited from them even if locally produced substitutions carried higher prices than available imports. However this approach always carry with it the danger of over-pampering domestic industries. The people in charge of domestic industries may decide to take a free ride to enrich themselves by supplying the domestic industries with obsolete or substandard production methods (for kick backs) rather than with best methods for the nation. [8, 9, 10]

When the cronies are in control, they borrow like mad to build everything so that they can get a cut (kick back) on every project. After that the country will be left with mountain of debts and prestigious but substandard or even useless projects [11, 15]. Cronyism is the cause for the backwardness of socialist countries.

“But just after Argentina settled with the “holdouts” in 2016 on defaulted dollar-bonds dating from its last default, it sold new foreign-currency bonds, in all kinds of issuances, including in June last year $2.75 billion of 100-year bonds at a yield of 7.9% and in January this year $9 billion of bonds, composed of five-year bonds at a yield of 4.625%, 10-year bonds at a yield of 6%, and 30-year bonds at a yield of 7%.”[16]

“ET: This shows that the government’s policy is an abject failure: with a peso that devalued fast; with the interest rate set at a high 40% by the Argentine Republic’s Central Bank; with the $ 8 billion reduction in international reserves that keep declining. And with a debt service that has increased by 100% compared to 2017. Faced with a balance sheet of such a nature, undoubtedly it is a total failure. Macri claimed that a high growth level and a viable debt would be ensured by paying the debt – between end-2015 and early-2016 – and by compensating the vulture funds, in keeping with Judge Thomas Griesa’s verdict. He knelt before the vulture funds (see: [17]). But the facts confirm that this plan did not work. Debt rose at a whirling pace and it’s startling to see how fast it snowballed. As a result, it became impossible to convince the creditors that Argentina could repay its debt in the future.” [18]

“Argentina’s currency is in free fall… The slump threatens to spread havoc through the $640 billion economy, rupturing supply chains for businesses and straining the finances of households.” [19]

Australia and Argentina were economically very similar prior to 1970. They then followed different paths from 1980: Senator Button of Keating’s government dismantled the over-protection for the car industry in Australia. That brought forward a wave of modernization. Currently Australia is in much better shape than Argentina [20, 21].

3. Turkish lira versus the US dollar.

Monetary policy is typically implemented by a central bank, while fiscal policy decisions are set by the national government. However, both monetary and fiscal policy may be used to influence the performance of the economy in the short run.

” It helps quantify the effects of the recent economic chaos in Turkey. Turkey’s economic future remains uncertain, but the reality is that their currency has devalued as a result of large fiscal deficits and heavy borrowing used to make up the revenue shortfall. Inflation is not the cause of the problem; it is a symptom. The cause is the dramatic increase in the supply of lira designed to solve the poor fiscal condition.”[22]

Turkey is an interesting case. The country is a bridge between Western countries and Middle East countries and is not far from Russia. That country relied on its membership in NATO to shoot down a stray Russian fighter jet ! It then mended its bad relation with Russia and went on to antagonize USA with its threat of re-polarizing its foreign policy.

Although Russia now allows Russians to have holidays in Turkey and China is courting it with the OBOR plan (“One Belt One Road” or rather “Once Borrowed Only Regret”? [23]), Turkey’s currency lira is now in trouble partially due to US tariffs imposed on Turkey’s goods.

4. US dollars are being pushed back into their national territory by China, Russia and the Silk Road Alliance.

US dollars are only fiat money [24] after Nixon’s removal of their ex-changeability for gold. They are only useful to people who have to pay tax to and pay for service from the American government. They are absolutely useless to foreigners who don’t have to pay tax to or pay for service from the American government. Having US dollars as a medium for international trade is a privilege to USA: There are more holders of that currency, the pool of dollars in circulation is therefore vast. That allows American government to quietly “tax” all its currency holders, domestic and international, through inflation [25].

American exploitation of this privilege position [26] with its imposition of banking sanctions against many countries has led to the (irreversible ?) push for using gold or oil as exchange medium in international trade [27, 28, 29, 30].

5. Conclusions

This is an interesting time for studying economics. Most theories can be tested and sorted out during this short time. Blind belief in fiat currency is now questioned everywhere.

The leaders of nations have to learn now that there is always a reaction to every of their actions.

References

[1]. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6032367/Venezuela-price-chaos-gasoline-costs-just-one-Bolivar-egg-costs-200-000-times-much.html

[2]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/05/paper-money-eventually-returns-to-its-intrinsic-value-zero-by-alex-deluce/

[3]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/05/preparing-for-%e2%80%8bcashless-trading/

[4]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/02/20/cashless-bartering-for-survival/

[5]. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-04/in-caracus-venezuela-a-haircut-costs-five-bananas-and-two-eggs

[6]. https://abackwoodsconservative.wordpress.com/2018/09/09/obama-claims-the-current-economy-as-his-and-yet/

[7]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_Argentina

[8]. http://nomadcapitalist.com/2016/05/30/the-5-worst-countries-for-crony-capitalism/

[9]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crony-capitalism_index

[10]. https://www.heritage.org/international-economies/report/cronyism-and-corruption-are-killing-economic-freedom-argentina

[11]. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-31639768

[12]. https://www.afr.com/news/world/south-america/china-on-the-march-in-latin-america-with-new-space-station-in-argentina-20180730-h13c95

[13]. https://uk.reuters.com/article/argentina-china-idUKL2N0PT0IK20140718

[14]. https://www.ft.com/content/2d264e78-8cf9-11e5-a549-b89a1dfede9b

[15]. https://www.dw.com/en/chinese-loans-helping-latin-america-amid-oil-price-slump/a-18284605

[16]. https://www.businessinsider.com/the-imf-could-push-argentina-from-a-currency-crisis-into-a-debt-crisis-2018-5/?r=AU&IR=T

[17]. http://www.cadtm.org/Reject-the-Imminent-Agreement-with

[18]. http://www.cadtm.org/The-IMF-is-back-in-Argentina-an-economic-and-social-crisis-even-more-serious

[19]. https://us-issues.com/2018/09/04/argentina-currency-crisis-pain-is-spreading/

[20]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Australia

[21]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Argentina

[22]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/06/what-turkey-can-teach-us-about-gold-by-michael-lebowitz/

[23]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/06/17/expansion-by-predatory-loans/

[24]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/your-fiat-money-part-2/

[25]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/03/29/inflation-is-vicious-to-fiat-money-users/

[26]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorbitant_privilege

[27]. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-dollar-analysis/dollar-decline-rekindles-reserve-currency-worries-idUSKCN1GJ2XW

[28]. https://www.forbes.com/sites/nathanlewis/2016/05/05/china-is-laying-the-foundation-for-the-next-world-gold-standard-system/#305670a7689e

[29]. https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-03-30/yuan-oil-futures-contract-gold

[30]. https://www.rt.com/business/438162-us-dollar-crash-jim-rogers/

Added after 2018 Oct 10:

Dedolarization
[31]. http://www.alt-market.com/articles/3544-the-world-is-quietly-decoupling-from-the-us–and-no-one-is-paying-attention

[32]. https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2018/10/26/578126/Russia-China-Swift-Alternative

[33]. https://www.rt.com/business/442410-gold-demand-up-dollar/

[34]. https://socioecohistory.wordpress.com/2018/10/27/gold-demand-up-42-as-countries-abandon-us-dollar-in-expectation-of-geopolitical-shift/

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Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian notes with transparent stripes.

Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian notes with transparent stripes

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No.72).

Detecting couterfeit currency, Australian notes with transparent stripes.

#Australian, #Canadian, #UK, #Euro, #counterfeit, #currency, #detect, #dollar, #fake, #money, #polymer, #transparent stripe, #hologram

There are many countries in the world using polymer currency notes. Australia, Canada, the EU, UK are among them. The newest notes are made of polymer with a transparent stripe in their middles. Australian notes have attained in Asia the reputation of being counterfeit resistant.
This posting shows the most effective ways to distinguish between real and counterfeit 2nd series Australian polymer notes having transparent stripes.
You need no tool for most of these tests but you may need to carry a genuine $5AUS note with you all the time as your sample. The tools for some of the tests are a high power (x10) magnifying glass and a UV LED torch.

1. The transparent middle with metalic hographic features.

Australian note with a transparent stripe

Figure 1:An Australian note with a transparent stripe.

Australian note with a transparent stripe on white background

Figure 2: An Australian note with transparent stripe placed against a white background.
Since Australia has licensed its previous technology, its older manufacturing technique has been accessed by the organized counterfeiters and many counterfeit polymer $50AUD have appeared, creating hard problems for Australian traders. This occured after the counterfeiters had spent years experimenting with Vietnamese polymer notes using licensed Aistralian technology. A 2nd series of polymer dollars is now issued. The new series is intended to be ahead of the technology of counterfeiters. The technology in the new series is also used in UK, EU and Canadian notes. Anti-couterfeit features of the new notes rely mostly on the technology of holography and microprinting on polymers. These features are carried moatly by the transparent stripes of the notes.

To use the hologram fearures, we neef to distinguish the front and the back sides of each note. The back side of the new $5AUD note has the drawing of the Australian Parliament House,

All holographic fearures are to be VIEWED from THE BACK SIDE:

The 7 branched Australian Federation Star on the top of the transparent strip appears like a raised solid star: 1. Only the rim of that 7 corner star stays on the transparent sheet as a solid silvery metal line. 2. The the center of this holographic star appears to float about 3mm above the base.

The bird next to the Federation Star appears to flap its wings when the angle of view changes slowly.
The domed house on the bottom of the transparent strip has 3 pictures:
1. A domed house and its frontal 4 piers, 2. A figure 5, 3. A figure of a backward 5

2. The holographic gold coloured stamp on the top right of the back side

Figure: The gold coloured stamp on the top right of the backside of an Australian note with transparent stripe.

The gold coloured stamp on the top right of the backside has an irridescent line moving up and down as if it was 3mm below the stamp, Looking at the bird shaped clear window on the other side of the stamp, the irridescent line appears as of it was 3mm above the bird.

3. Integral clear plastic window with raised Federation Star and fully fused ink

Figure: The welded raised printed transparent plastic window of an Australian note with transparent stripe.

The raised transparent plastic window welded onto the bottom left of the back side has fine raised prints of the Australian Federation Star.

The clear window cannot be detached from the note (The test is by scratching the edge of the clear windows with your fingernails). The white colour on the rim have been fused into the polymer and can only be scratched off but cannot be rubbed off (The test for non-fused colours is by scratching the colours on the clear windows with your fingernails.) ===> These are effective features against counterfeits.

===> Counterfeiters are currently making only stuck on windows but they have produced clear windows with metal strips to make counterfeit $100 Canadian notes. (see [5].).

4.Fluorescent figures

Figure: Fluorescent figures and fine prints on the 5 AUD note with transparent stripe.

When placed under short wavelength UV light, the note has the following fluorescent figures.

There are fluorescent figures of a green bird and a red tree on the bottom left of the front side. Only the bird has appeared in the above picture as the UV light used for taking that photo did not have short enough wavelength to show the red tree branch.

There are also figures of green year number in the center and green serial number on the left rim of the back side.

Note:
Counterfeiters have now used UV fluorescent ink [3].

5. Fine printing.

Figure: Australian note with transparent stripe has fine printings on the steps of drawing of Parliament House. The characters are 0.3mm in height and are seen through a 30X magnification glass.

KarlMagn

Figure: A quality 10X magnifying glass for seeing fine features on currency notes.

There are fine printings on the 2nd series Australian polymer notes which compare well with the fine printing on the US cloth based notes.

The characters of 0.3mm height in size are on the back side of the 5 AUD note, along the steps of the Parliament House.

===> You need to be familiar with these printings to check their quality.
Tools:
1. 10X magnifying glass. 2. You need to carry a $5 AUS note with you all the time to make non-arguable judgment on the print quality of notes.

6. Effective detection strategy.
The five features in the above order are in order of increasing difficulty. They are thus in the right order for an effective detection strategy. From my searches using the Internet, I have not found any case of counterfeit AUS dollars passing more than four of tests at such levels.
NOTES:
1. There are also UV torches sold to detect counterfeit currencies from most countries but high quality UV lights are required for this anti-counterfeit feature on many new notes. A high quality UV light source has UV of short wavelength and narrow spectrum with little visible light emitted. It is neither small nor cheap.

2. Iodine pens give yellow ink mark which darkens to brown on contact with starch from ordinary paper. These pens are sold to detect fake US dollars and will not work on polymer notes.

NOTES:
Counterfeiters have had decades of practice in counterfeiting Vietnamese polymer currency [3,4] (printed under technology licensed by Note Printing Australia), They have been operating with little risk of apprehension across the borders there and they are so confident that they openly advertised their counterfeits to ignorant greedy people at 30% of the values of genuine money.
They have now targeted the Australian polymer dollars. This is not a surprise as Australia is the first country to issue polymer currency (since 1988) but its currency notes are now lacking modern effective anti-counterfeit features such as holograms and tiny hidden printing. Five dollars notes are being replaced by these new ones with more modern design and gradually larger denomination notes will follow.

7. No more hidden image.

NOTE:
There have been reports of counterfeits of Vietnamese polymer currency (made under license from Australia Note Printing) with crude hidden images [3].

8. No more creasing test on polymer base

The polymer for the 1st.series of Australian notes is soft, uncreasable but tough and is hard to tear at the edge. Counterfeit Australian dollars and counterfeit Vietnamese currency notes appearing in Vietnam are mostly made from non-tough materials [3].
Recovery and toughness tests are carried out by scrunching and by stretching the edge with your fingers . The note will spring back and will not be torn. ===>This test is good for 1st series Australian $50 notes, the genuine note will be replaced free of charge with a new one at any Australian bank if it is not that tough. Many counterfeit $50 notes have been detected by this test in the State of Queensland.

However the transparent stripe section and the hologram prints of the 2nd series are not that tough and that uncrunchable.

The creasing test should not be applied to the new 2nd series notes.

Figure: Front side of new ten dollars note with a transparent stripe.

Figures: Fifty dollars note with transparent stripe. Only bottom holograms are spot lighted in these figures.

9. Reducing your exposure to counterfeir currency when TRAVELING.

When traveling and using unfamiliar currency or when your senses are not acute, you can reduce your risk to counterfeit currency by adopting the following cautionary habits:

9.1. Do NOT EXPECT that you may get any CHANGE in countries like Vietnam, let alone receiving changes in genuine notes !

They always think that you will spend like drunken sailors, have the duty to give them the changes as tips and never need to get back any change !

Hide all you money (even from your guides and local acquaintances) and only let them know that little part you have planned for dealing with them. This prevents any robbery being planned on you. Indeed, your local acquaintances may plan a robbery on you when you make a farewell party to them (I know this first hand) !

9.2. When traveling outside Australia, do NOT show or give a retailer any high value note unless they are READY to give you your changes in GENUINE NOTES. This prevents them from grabbing your note then refuse to give you the change.

Do NOT let them pass your note around to ask for changes: The note may come back to you but substituted by a fake one along the way.

9.3. Carry a variety of high value notes so that you can always combine them to pay each of the purchase charges without receiving any change in high value notes.

9.4 Count all your changes before going for the next purchase.

9..5. Only receive high value currency notes from registered banks (They are obliged to check currency notes when receiving and give you genuine usable notes).

9.6. Ask the banks to give you the combinations suitable for your trip until your next bank visit.

9.7. When traveling outside Australia build up and keep a stack (about 50) of small value notes to save yourself from asking for changes from sellers. They will pretend not having any and asking you for tips ! Hide it from retailers as they will try to get it off you by any mean to corner you into not receiving changes!.

10. Tactile information.

There are raised marks on the new 5 AUD note to tell its value using only touches.
11. Unused very effective available 1st line of defence: Holograms.

hologramvnd

Figure 1: Looking at a LED torch through the anti-counterfeit hologram window of a Vietnamese polymer note reveals a hard to counterfeit pattern. es from left to right.

Note Printing Australia, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of Australia has provided Vietnamese money Printer with a hologram technology for anti-counterfeiting. The technology has been applied to the Vietnamese currency worth more than $2US. This hologram method currently appears to be the MOST EFFECTIVE first defense line against counterfeit notes.
The new 100 US dollar notes have a blue hologram bands with tiny pictures of the number 100 in checker pattern. When the viewed at varying angle from left to right these patterns smoothly move downward as if they float on the notes.
Canadian 20 dollar notes have both see through and metallic holograms. Hologram technology should be added to Australian notes.
12. Unused very effective available 2nd line of defence: Burried hidden small print or a security wire

secureline

.Figure : Small print is hidden inside the base material of a US currency note made of cloth material.

Small print buried inside the base material now replaces the old metallic wire buried inside the base material. It is seen when the note is hold up against a strong background light. The technology has been applied to Vietnamese notes, it would be an effective addition to Australian notes.
===> Counterfeiters have produced hidden figures but they are too crude for security small prints.

13. Unused very effective available 3rd line of defence: Iridescent ink for features.

iridvndusd

Figure: The gold coloured ink for the emblem of a coiled reptile (?) on a Vietnamese note is claimed to change to a grey metallic colour (left part of the composite photo) when viewed from a glancing angle under daylight. The technology has been shown applicable to polymer notes.

On a cloth based $100 US note, the picture of a bell in a bottle can be made to clearly change from bronze to green by shining a strong light beam at normal and at glancing angle. The test is easy when you have a LED torch to shine a strong light beam onto the ink and change the beam angle from normal to glancing.
The technology has been applied to Vietnamese polymer notes with less effectiveness. The gold coloured ink for the emblem of a coiled reptile (?) on a Vietnamese note is claimed by Vietnamese State Bank to change to a grey metallic colour when viewed from a glancing angle under daylight. Although this anti-counterfeit feature does not seem to work well on Vietnamese polymer notes but could be made better if adopted on Australian notes.

14. Unused very effective available 4th line of defence: Magnetic ink.

magntest

Figure 1: The ink on any genuine US note is magnetic and is clearly seen attracted by a fridge magnet.

When holding the rectangular note vertically by grabbing its upper short side, you can easily see that the ink on the US dollar notes is attracted by a fridge magnet hold in the other hand.
Tool: You need a ceramic fridge magnet for this test.
It is desirable to have this technology added to polymer notes.

References.
[1]. Chris Vedelago, Cameron Houston, Australia flooded with fake $50 notes so good they fool banks, The Courier, http://www.thecourier.com.au/story/3757999/austral…, posted 28 Feb 2016.
[2]. Counterfeit Detection Guide, Could you spot a counterfeit banknote?, Reserve Bank of Australia, http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/counterfeit-detection…, accessed 20 July, 2016.
[3]. M.Anh, Cách nhận biết tiền giả 200.000 đồng, Báo VietNamNet,
http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/285822/cach-nha… posted 26/01/2016
[4]. Bắt khẩn cấp kẻ rao bán tiền giả trên Facebook, Báo VietNamNet, http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/287820/bat-kha…, posted 02/02/2016
[5]. Security Features, Bank of Canada, http://www.bankofcanada.ca/banknotes/bank-note-ser…, accessed 20 July 2016.
[6]. tonytran2015, Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/15/detecting-counterfeit-currency-us-dollars/ … posted on Jul 15, 2016.

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Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars, posted on July 15, 2016

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Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian dollars., posted on November 15, 2016

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, , , Cashless bartering for survival, Federal Reserve Bank charges undeserved fees to Americans., A satirical guide to signs of an impending crash for small investors, Your fiat money (Part 2), Your fiat money, Bankers given outrageous incomes by their boards, Signs pointing to an impending crash for small investors,Bankers earn more than interest margin on secured loans, Can most pension funds last?, all

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Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian dollars.

Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian dollars

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(blog No. 29)

#Australian, #counterfeit, #currency, #detect, #dollar, #fake, #feature, #money, #polymer

There are many countries in the world using polymer currency notes. Australia, Canada, the EU, UK are among them. Being unfamiliar with the characteristics of polymer notes may expose you to significant real risk of loss by receiving counterfeit changes.
This posting shows the most effective ways to distinguish between real and counterfeit Australian polymer notes. Vietnamese polymer currency notes [3,4] (printed under technology licensed by Note Printing Australia, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of Australia) are also mentioned to illustrate detection techniques.
You need no tool for most of these tests but you may need to carry a genuine $50AUS note with you all the time as your sample. The tools for some of the tests are a high power (x10) magnifying glass and a UV LED torch. The technique can be readily applied to other polymer notes such as Canadian and UK ones.

1. Hidden image.

hiddenimage

Figure 1: The back side of a $50 AUS is shown with overlays of its hidden image of the Australian coat of arms next to the clear window and of its UV fluorescent smaller sized serial number. The same note without the added hidden figure is shown in figure 2 of the next section.
When view from either side against a strong background light, a hidden image is shown next to the clear window. It is the Australian coat of arms.This is the first line of defense against counterfeits.
NOTE:
There have been reports of counterfeits of Vietnamese polymer currency (made under license from Australia Note Printing) with crude hidden images [3].

2. Uncreasable polymer base

crumbled.jpg

flatdollar

austvviet

Figure 1: An Australian polymer note being scrunched, note the serial number. Figure 2: The same note recovers its original condition after 5 minutes. Figure 3: Comparison of the recovery of Australian polymer note after only 10 minutes and a Vietnamese note (printed on non-Australian polymer) after 24 hours. The Vietnamese note still had not recovered.

The polymer for Australian notes is soft, uncreasable but tough and is hard to tear at the edge. Counterfeit Australian dollars and counterfeit Vietnamese currency notes appearing in Vietnam are mostly made from non-tough materials [3].
Recovery and toughness tests are carried out by scrunching and by stretching the edge with your fingers . The note will spring back and will not be torn. ===>This test is good for Australian $50 notes, the note will be replaced free of charge with a new one at any Australian bank if it is not that tough.
Polymer currency not printed on that special Australian supplied polymer will not recover and is not that tough. For example, some genuine Vietnamese notes (using Australian technology but not printed on Australian supplied polymer) have been found to be unable to withstand the scrunching test and is not that tough (see the figures of this step and see also references [1], [2], [3]).

3. Integral clear plastic window with raised number and white stars by fused ink.

clearwindow

Figure 1: Integral clear plastic window with raised numbers and white stars printed with fused ink. The star wings inside a red circle at the bottom for alignment test and the weave patterns are also seen.

3/- There is an integral clear plastic window with raised numbers and white seven pointed stars printed with fused ink. The clear window cannot be detached from the note (The test is by scratching the edge of the clear windows with your fingernails). The white colour of the seven pointed stars have been fused into the polymer and can only be scratched off but cannot be rubbed off (The test for non-fused colours is by scratching the colours on the clear windows with your fingernails.) ===> These are effective features against counterfeits.
Polymer notes of other countries even have raised features on transparent windows. .
===> Counterfeiters are currently making only stuck on windows but they have produced clear windows with metal strips to make counterfeit $100 Canadian notes. (see [5].).

4. Fused inks for the whole note, some features are raised printed.

fusedinked

Figure 1: Surface texture of $50 AUS polymer note and print quality of its smallest letters.

All inks on the polymer notes are FUSED into the polymer base. Some features on Australian polymer notes are raised printed, they are printed with raised ink and have a feel of thickness [2]. The name of the country and other prints of the same colour are raised printed.
The created touch is commonly known as the touch feel of the note.

5. See through stars for checking double sided alignment.

polymeraust100dollars

Figure 1: An $100 AUD note with its magnified fine prints and its circled see through star on the bottom left corner.

A circled see through seven pointed star for checking the perfect alignment of double sided printing is placed on each polymer note. For a $50 AUD note, the star is near to the sharp bottom corners of the transparent window. (Alignment is checked by looking at images on both sides against any strong background light.). The gaps between the seven wings of the combined pictures from both side should be regular.
===> This is an effective feature against counterfeits.

6. Fine printing.

fineprint50dollar

FinePrint

FinestLetters

fineprint500000

KarlMagn

Figure 1: The front of a $50 AUS with indicated magnified fine printings and partially enhanced Australian coat of arms that is normally invisible. Figure 2, 3: Comparison fine printing of sizes 0.5mm and 0.2mm on US dollar note on cloth material, Figure 4: Comparison fine printing on a Vietnamese polymer note printed with licensed Australian technology. Figure 5: A quality 10X magnifying glass for seeing fine features on currency notes.

The fine printings on the Australian polymer notes compare well with the fine printing on the US cloth based notes and the Vietnamese polymer notes printed with licensed Australian technology.
The comparison figure shows US letters of height of 0.5mm (or 1/50inch) in bronze colour found on the curved character line bordering the unprinted area reserved for the hidden figure. It is near the green treasury seal.
===> You need to be familiar with these printings to check their quality.
Tools:
1. 10X magnifying glass. 2. You need to carry a $50 AUS note with you all the time to make non-arguable judgment on the print quality of notes.

7. Weave patterns of fine inclined lines.

Weave50dollar.jpg

weave500000vnd

Figure 1: Clear window, alignment star and weave pattern on a $50 AUS note. Figure 2: Comparison figure of Vietnamese weave patterns. Vietnamese patterns are finer and more easily seen but are not as effective as Australian patterns.

Very fine weave patterns are printed on the front of the notes near the transparent window. The lines are inclined at various angles to stop counterfeiters from using inkjet printers to produce them. The lines will be badly broken up when printed by any ink-jet printer on counterfeits.

8. UV-light serial number features.
There are two serial numbers on the back side of each note. One of them lights up under UV light from common inexpensive torches. Under a short wavelength UV, a big number will appear showing the value of the note.

Note:
Counterfeiters have now used UV fluorescent ink [3].

9. Unused most effective available 1st line of defence: Holograms.

hologramvnd

HologramMagn

Figure 1: Looking at a LED torch through the anti-counterfeit hologram window of a Vietnamese polymer note reveals a hard to counterfeit pattern. Figure 2: Composite photos of the magnified views of a blue security band on a $100US note. The checker pattern on the blue security band moves smoothly downward when the viewing angle changes from left to right.

Note Printing Australia, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of Australia has provided Vietnamese money Printer with a hologram technology for anti-counterfeiting. The technology has been applied to the Vietnamese currency worth more than $2US. This hologram method currently appears to be the MOST EFFECTIVE first defense line against counterfeit notes.
The new 100 US dollar notes have a blue hologram bands with tiny pictures of the number 100 in checker pattern. When the viewed at varying angle from left to right these patterns smoothly move downward as if they float on the notes.
Canadian 20 dollar notes have both see through and metallic holograms. Hologram technology should be added to Australian notes.

10. Unused most effective available 2nd line of defence: Burried hidden small print or a security wire

secwireVND.jpg

secureline

Figure 1: Small print is hidden inside the base material of a Vietnamese polymer note. Figure 2: Small print is hidden inside the base material of a US currency note made of cloth material.

Small print buried inside the base material now replaces the old metallic wire buried inside the base material. It is seen when the note is hold up against a strong background light. The technology has been applied to Vietnamese notes, it would be an effective addition to Australian notes.
===> Counterfeiters have produced hidden figures but they are too crude for security small prints.
11. Unused most effective available 3rd line of defence: Iridescent ink for features.

iridVND.jpg

iridvndusd

Figure 1: A Vietnamese note is placed flat on top of the left half of an US note, with its colour changing emblem near to the colour changing “bell in a bottle” of the $100US note. Both are shone by a strong light beam at normal angle (top picture) then at glancing angle (bottom picture). The change in colour (from bronze to green) on the $100US note is obvious while the change on Vietnamese note is barely noticeable. Figure 2: The gold coloured ink for the emblem of a coiled reptile (?) on a Vietnamese note is claimed to change to a grey metallic colour (left part of the composite photo) when viewed from a glancing angle under daylight. The technology has been shown applicable to polymer notes.

4/- On a cloth based $100 US note, the picture of a bell in a bottle can be made to clearly change from bronze to green by shining a strong light beam at normal and at glancing angle. The test is easy when you have a LED torch to shine a strong light beam onto the ink and change the beam angle from normal to glancing.
The technology has been applied to Vietnamese polymer notes with less effectiveness. The gold coloured ink for the emblem of a coiled reptile (?) on a Vietnamese note is claimed by Vietnamese State Bank to change to a grey metallic colour when viewed from a glancing angle under daylight. Although this anti-counterfeit feature does not seem to work well on Vietnamese polymer notes but could be made better if adopted on Australian notes.
12. Unused most effective available 4th line of defence: Magnetic ink.

magntest

Figure 1: The ink on any genuine US note is magnetic and is clearly seen attracted by a fridge magnet.

When holding the rectangular note vertically by grabbing its upper short side, you can easily see that the ink on the US dollar notes is attracted by a fridge magnet hold in the other hand.
Tool: You need a ceramic fridge magnet for this test.
It is desirable to have this technology added to polymer notes.

13. Effective detection strategy.
The seven tests have been given are in order of increasing difficulty. They are thus in the right order for an effective detection strategy. From my searches using the Internet, I have not found any case of counterfeit AUS dollars passing more than four of these eight tests.
NOTES:
1. There are also UV torches sold to detect counterfeit currencies of most countries but high quality UV lights are required for this anti-counterfeit feature on many new notes. A high quality UV light source has UV of short wavelength and narrow spectrum with little visible light emitted. It is neither small nor cheap.
2. Iodine pens give yellow ink mark which darkens to brown on contact with starch from ordinary paper. These pens are sold to detect fake US dollars and will not work on polymer notes.
Step 14: Reducing your exposure to counterfeit currency.
When traveling and using unfamiliar currency or when your senses are not acute, you can reduce your risk to counterfeit currency by adopting these cautionary rules:
1. Carry a variety of high value notes so that you can combine them to pay each of the purchase charges without receiving any change in high value notes.
2. Only receive high value currency notes from registered banks (They are obliged to check currency notes when receiving and give you genuine usable notes).
3. Ask the banks to give you the combinations suitable for your trip until your next bank visit.

NOTES:
Counterfeiters have had decades of practice in counterfeiting Vietnamese polymer currency [3,4] (printed under technology licensed by Note Printing Australia), They have been operating with little risk of apprehension across the borders there and they are so confident that they openly advertised their counterfeits to ignorant greedy people at 30% of the values of genuine money.
They have now targeted the Australian polymer dollars. This is not a surprise as Australia is the first country to issue polymer currency (since 1988) but its currency notes are now lacking modern effective anti-counterfeit features such as holograms and tiny hidden printing. Australia is now in the process of replacing her polymer notes. Five dollars notes are being replaced by the ones with more modern design and gradually larger denomination notes will also be replaced.

Figures: Front and back views of a new 5 Australian dollar note with transparent middle section
References.
[1]. Chris Vedelago, Cameron Houston, Australia flooded with fake $50 notes so good they fool banks, The Courier, http://www.thecourier.com.au/story/3757999/austral…, posted 28 Feb 2016.
[2]. Counterfeit Detection Guide, Could you spot a counterfeit banknote?, Reserve Bank of Australia, http://banknotes.rba.gov.au/counterfeit-detection…, accessed 20 July, 2016.
[3]. M.Anh, Cách nhận biết tiền giả 200.000 đồng, Báo VietNamNet,
http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/285822/cach-nha… posted 26/01/2016
[4]. Bắt khẩn cấp kẻ rao bán tiền giả trên Facebook, Báo VietNamNet, http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/287820/bat-kha…, posted 02/02/2016
[5]. Security Features, Bank of Canada, http://www.bankofcanada.ca/banknotes/bank-note-ser…, accessed 20 July 2016.
[6]. tonytran2015, Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/07/15/detecting-counterfeit-currency-us-dollars/ … posted on Jul 15, 2016.

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Detecting counterfeit Australian polymer dollars with transparent stripes.

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Detecting counterfeit currency US dollars

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Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars

Detecting Counterfeit Currency, US dollars

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

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#counterfeit, #currency, #detect, #dollars, #money, #feature, #counterfeit US dollars,
When traveling oversea you may have to use US currency. However, this currency is the target of many counterfeiters and if you are unfamiliar with it and cannot distinguish between real money and counterfeit money you may suffer substantial loss. Counterfeit notes are not rare in South East Asia.

This posting shows the most effective ways to distinguish between real and counterfeit money. You need no tool for most of these tests but you may need to carry a genuine $5US note with you all the time as your sample (a smaller note of $1US may do).

The tools for some of the tests are: A LED torch, a fridge magnet and a high power (x10) magnifying glass.

1. Security band using hologram.

Hologram

HologramMagn

Figure 1: Composite photos of a stretched out $100US note. The “stretched dollar” has four blue security bands instead of one. Each band is the picture of the same physical band on that dollar note viewed from a different angle. Figure 2: Composite photos of the magnified views of one same blue security band. The security band is a hologram feature on the $100US note. The checker pattern on the blue security band moves smoothly downward when the viewing angle changes from left to right.

The new 100 US dollar notes have beautiful blue hologram bands with tiny pictures of the number 100 in checker pattern. When the viewed at varying angle from left to right these patterns smoothly move downward as if they float on the notes.

2. Iridescent ink for features.

Irid

Figure 1: An $100 US note, with its colour changing “bell in a bottle”. It is shone by a strong light beam at normal angle (top picture) then at glancing angle (bottom picture). The change in colour (from bronze to green) on the $100US note is obvious.

Featured marks by iridescent ink which changes colour when view from different angles: On the $100 US note, the picture of a bell in a bottle can be made to change from bronze to green by shining a strong light beam at normal and at glancing angle.

The test is easy when you have a LED torch to shine a strong light beam onto the ink and change the beam angle from normal to glancing.

Tool:

A LED torch (powered only by one single AA battery) is helpful but not essential.

3. Hidden figure.

HiddenFig

Figure 1: When view against a strong background light, a hidden image is shown, matching the printed portrait on the note.
When view against a strong background light, a hidden image is shown, MATCHING the printed portrait on the note. ===> This is a strong test against counterfeit notes.

NOTES:

Counterfeiters have been known to reprint high value notes on base material of lower value notes to keep hidden figure and to fool iodine pens. It is vital to have hidden figures matching the printed portraits.

4. Hidden small print instead of security wire

secureline

Figure 1: Small print is hidden inside the base material. It is seen when the note is hold up against a strong background light.

Small print buried inside the base material now replaces the old metallic wire buried inside the base material. It is seen when the note is hold up against a strong background light.

5. Magnetic ink.

magntest

Figure 1: The ink on the genuine note is magnetic and is clearly seen attracted by a fridge magnet.

When holding the rectangular note vertically by grabbing its upper short side, you can easily see that the ink on the US dollar notes is attracted by a fridge magnet hold in the other hand.

Tool:

You need a ceramic fridge magnet for this test.

6. A quality high power magnifying glass is a useful anti-counterfeit tool.

KarlMagn

KarlTriplet

Figure 1, 2: A high power (×10) magnifying glass (disassembled in the second picture) is required for inspecting fine details on currency notes.

CLEAR and CRISP printing is the common feature of most currency notes in the world. Currency issuers use their best printing technology to stay ahead of counterfeiters. They design their currency with very fine details such that only their genuine notes can have the details (for example, watermarks on the base) printed clearly.

You certainly need a good high power (x10) magnifying glass to check the printing.

7. Fine printing.

FinePrint

Figure 1: The treasury seal with fine clear and crisp printing. Near to it is the fine character line bordering the unprinted area reserved for the hidden figure.

The fine printing of letters of height of 0.5mm (or 1/50inch) in bronze colour is found on $100 US note on the curved character line bordering the unprinted area reserved for the hidden figure. It is near the green treasury seal.

FinestLetters

Figure 2: Finest letters on a $100 US note.

The finest printing on US dollar notes is in black letters of height of 0.2mm (or 1/128 inch). It is placed at different places for different denominations. They are:

a/- at the bottom edge under the name Franklin for the portrait on any $100 US note ,

b/- on the left side of the name Jackson for the portrait on any $20 US note,

c/- inside the loops at both ends of any $5 US note.

===> You need to be familiar with these printings to check their quality.

Tools:

1. 10X magnifying glass.

2. You need to carry a $5US note with you all the time to make non-arguable judgment on the print quality of notes

8. Blue and red fibers in cloth base material.

BlueRedFiber

Texture

Figure 1: There are many blue fibers in the base material. One red fiber is seen in the center of the figure. Figure 2: A raised weave pattern is seen on the surface of the note.

The base material is made of cloth and is not paper. Under the magnifying glass it has the structure a white wool blanket. There are occasional blue and red fibers mixed into this white base material. There are less red fibers than blue fibers.

Any note of $5 or more has weaving patterns on most of its surface.

Tools:

1. 10X magnifying glass.

8. Effective detection strategy.

usdUV

Figure 1: UV anti-counterfeit feature of a $5 US note.

The seven tests have been given are in order of increasing difficulty. They are thus in the right order for an effective detection strategy. From my searches using the Internet, I have not found any case of counterfeit US dollars passing more than four of these seven tests.

NOTES:

1. Iodine pens give yellow ink mark which darkens to brown on contact with starch from ordinary paper. These pens are sold to detect fake US dollars. Counterfeiters have been known to waterproof their counterfeit notes to fool these pens. They have also been known to reprint high value notes on lower value notes to fool those pens and to keep the hidden figure.

2. There are also UV torches sold to detect counterfeit currencies of other countries. Every $5 or $20 US notes has a full length vertical UV fluorescent line but this feature is hard to excite on other US notes. High quality UV lights are required use this anti-counterfeit feature on new US notes. A high quality UV light source has UV of short wavelength and narrow spectrum with little visible light emitted. It is neither small nor cheap.

10. Reducing your exposure to counterfeit currency.

When traveling and using unfamiliar currency you can reduce your risk to counterfeit currency by adopting these cautionary rules:

1. Carry a variety of high value notes so that you can combine them to pay each of the purchase charges without receiving any change in high value notes.

2. Only receive high value currency notes from registered banks (They are obliged to check currency notes when receiving and give you genuine usable notes).

3. Ask the banks to give you the combinations suitable for your trip until your next bank visit.

Reference

[1]. Unknown Author retired from youtube as of summer 2011, A lesson in printing fake money, CK-World Online Tech Videos on Youtube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ck8DFCg3IA , uploaded on Apr 26, 2010, accessed 22/7 2016.

===> Its title is sarcastic.. The article does NOT help counterfeiters.

Relevant MONEY blogs:

Detecting counterfeit currency, Australian dollars., posted on November 15, 2016

fineprint50dollar

Detecting counterfeit currency, 2nd series Australian dollars., posted on August 10 2017,

Click here for my other blogs on polymeraust100dollarsMONEY

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