Private Federal Reserve Bank is not needed as a lender of last resort.

Private Federal Reserve Bank is not needed as a lender of last resort.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

Private Federal Reserve Bank is not needed as a lender of last resort.

#interest to Federal Reserve Bank, #lender of last resort, #gold standard, #fiat currency

1. The private Federal Reserve Bank of USA.

In the 1907, there was a crisis when many banks having taken GOLD BASED money from depositors did not have enough at counter for their customers to withdraw. A conglomerate of PRIVATE banks were then formed by private bankers to lend gold based money to those banks in crisis to prevent panic by the public. After that, in 1913 the US Government set up that conglomerate as a lender of last resort and it is named Federal Reserve Bank of USA.

“A financial crisis known as the Panic of 1907 was headed off by a private conglomerate (led by J. P. Morgan), who set themselves up as “lenders of last resort” to banks in trouble… the Federal Reserve System was created by the Federal Reserve Act of December 23, 1913, … to serve as a formal “lender of last resort” to banks in times of liquidity crisis” [1]

2. The abolishment of convertibility of US dollars to gold.

After President Nuxon removed the gold link from US dollars in 1971, [2] that money has become purely fiat money.

For that reason, the Treasury of the US Government can be the lender of last resort as it can PRINT AS MUCH MONEY AS NEEDED to supply all banks in ctisis. There is thus no necessity for any private bank to be a lender of last resort.

3. Conclusion.

For some unknown reason, the US government still lets the private Federal Reserve Bank of USA to be the lender of last resort and still pays interest to it. This creates an unfair interest burden on US citizens (England also has a similar private Bank of England operating there.).

On the other hand, the central banks of Australia and other countries are properly owned by their respective nations.

References:

[1]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Reserve_Bank

[2]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States_dollar

Added after 2018 Oct 16:

[3]. https://christianpatriots.org/2018/10/15/trump-is-right-the-federal-reserve-is-crazy-and-here-are-101-reasons-why-it-should-be-shut-down/

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Population Control only at home + Open border = Population Replacement.

Population Control only at home + Open border = Population Replacement.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. … ).

#population replacement, #population replacement denier, #population control, #open border, #green movement, #mass immigration,

Population Control only at home + Open border = Population Replacement.

1. Undeniable consequence.

Green movements are remarkably absent in those countries with population explosion while they are quite vocal in developed countries (with negative or low population growth). GREEN AT ALL COST is literally throwing Australians into the cold.

“Greens leader Richard Di Natale… is urging the government to intervene in the free market, and ban the newly created power provider from buying electricity generated from fossil fuels, such as coal and gas.” [1, 2]

This leads to higher, unaffordable electricity price [2b, 2c].

“More than US$70 billion of support is provided by governments to renewable energy production and consumption worldwide: IEA” [3]

“The Australian magical NEG target which turns black coal to white elephants… Who benefits? Gas companies, Renewables Co. Who loses? Everyone else.”[4,5,6]

On the other hand, humanitarian aids to countries with population explosion do NOT strongly require them to have any of population control [7], environment protection or conservation [8, 9].

Lefties are hypocritical denouncing the One Child Policy of China as inhuman [10, 11] while they ally with Greenies to denounce Australian Industries (in a country with low population growth that supplies China with resource and food) as non-sustainable. If Lefties had their way, China would now have more than 10 billion people.

Adding to the chaos are the advocates of open borders to accept ALL immigrants from anywhere. [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17] The results to all this is the unavoidable population replacement in all advanced nations.

POPULATION CONTROL ONLY AT HOME + OPEN BORDER = POPULATION REPLACEMENT.

2. Conclusion

We should be aware of the Population Replacement practitioners and the Population Replacement Deniers whether they are in the Green parties, Leftist parties or in the Open Border movements.

References:

[1]. https://www.conservatives.org.au/greens_call_for_government_owned_energy_retailer_to_lower_prices

[1b]. https://conservativedailypost.com/australian-leader-overthrown-following-ridiculous-global-warming-concerns/

[2]. https://www.pv-magazine.com/2016/05/06/australian-greens-launch-plans-to-subsidize-1-2-million-residential-battery-systems_100024460/

[2b]. http://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2016-06-09/electricity-disconnection-hotspots-mapped-in-new-modelling/7493876?pfmredir=sm

[2c]. https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/2856621-Households-in-the-Dark-report.html

[3]. http://joannenova.com.au/2012/09/government-burn-70-billion-a-year-subsidizing-renewables-and-wild-claims-of-fossil-fuel-subsidies-debunked/

[4]. http://joannenova.com.au/2018/06/neg/

[5]. https://www.forbes.com/sites/thebakersinstitute/2017/07/05/australias-conflicting-natural-gas-policies/#4176bc257741

[6]. https://www.heraldsun.com.au/blogs/andrew-bolt/paul-bongiorno-the-real-denier/news-story/06493c090759291acdf2a1941281681e

[7]. https://www.npr.org/2011/05/11/136201025/foreign-policy-without-birth-control-planet-doomed

[8]. http://international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/environmental_protection-protection_environnement/sustainability-viabilite.aspx?lang=eng

[9]. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/funding-biases-affect-wildlife-protection-in-the-developing-world-5025567/

[10]. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/oct/30/one-child-policy-china-cruelty-reproductive-rights

[11]. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/22/opinion/chinas-brutal-one-child-policy.html

[12]. https://www.voanews.com/a/trump-decries-coalition-of-open-borders-extremists/4536888.html

[13]. https://thehill.com/opinion/immigration/393675-americans-have-been-played-again-by-open-border-advocates

[14]. https://www.spectator.co.uk/2018/03/why-do-politicians-refuse-to-tell-it-how-it-is-on-immigration/

[15]. https://www.vox.com/world/2018/7/3/17530946/germany-immigration-angela-merkel-migration

[16]. https://www.economist.com/open-future/2018/08/08/america-could-learn-from-the-eus-open-borders

[17]. https://newint.org/blog/2017/11/29/why-open-borders

Added after 2018 October 04:

NEW REPORT ON REPLACEMENT MIGRATION ISSUED BY UN POPULATION DIVISION
20000317

NEW YORK, 17 March (DESA) — The Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) has released a new report titled “Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations?”. Replacement migration refers to the international migration that a country would need to prevent population decline and population ageing resulting from low fertility and mortality rates.

[18]. https://www.un.org/press/en/2000/20000317.dev2234.doc.html

[19]. http://m.everythingconnects.org/site/everythingconnects/overpopulation-solutions?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.everythingconnects.org%2Foverpopulation-solutions.html#3061

[20]. https://andrewbatson.com/2018/05/22/chinese-population-controls-before-the-one-child-policy/

[21]. https://larryhannigan.com/australia/43-senator-anning-controversial-speech/

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Trade war tactics, Part 7: Reviving tariffs and quotas.

Trade war tactics, Part 7: Reviving tariffs and quotas.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

There are always countries which disregard social justice and international laws. Other countries cannot declare wars against them but they can engage in economic activities called “trade wars” that are also effective in putting pressure on the transgressors.

For example, some transgressor may use its economic strength to destroy domestic industries of other nations through predatory pricing, disregard laws on intellectual properties of other nations and give no reciprocity to its market access.

#trade war, #predatory pricing, #product dumping, #tariff, #quota, #Green movement, #conservation,

Trade war tactics, Part 7: Reviving tariffs and quotas.

1. Time line of current trade war.

2018 January 23:

30% tariff on solar panels (most of them are from China) reducing to 15% after four years. 20% tariff on washing machines for the first 1.2 million units imported during the year.

2018March 22:

President Trump relied on Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 to propose tariffs on additional 60Billion worth of Chinese export (over 1,300 categories including aircraft parts, batteries, flat-panel televisions, medical devices, satellites, and various weapons) to USA as “a response to the unfair trade practices of China over the years”, including theft of U.S. intellectual property.

2018 April 2:

China imposed tariffs on 128 products it imports from America: 25% on aluminum, airplanes, cars, pork, and soybeans, 15% on fruit, nuts, and steel piping.

2018 April 5:

Trump responded saying that he was considering another round of tariffs on an additional $100 billion of Chinese imports as Beijing retaliates. The next day the World Trade Organization received request from China for consultations on new U.S. tariffs

2018 June 15,

United States impose a 25% tariff on $50 billion of Chinese exports ( with “industrially significant technology”). $34 billion start July 6, with a further $16 billion to begin at a later date

2018 Sept 23:

USA imposed new 10% tariffs on $200 billion of Chinese goods, spanning thousands of products, including food seasonings, baseball gloves, network routers and industrial machinery parts.

China retaliated immediately with new taxes of 5% to 10% on $60 billion of US goods such as meat, chemicals, clothes and auto parts.

2. Argument against free-loaders.

A restaurant spent its effort to make fine food to attract eaters. It then sells beverage to those eaters at high mark ups. Is it fair to let customers buy and bring in their own beverage from the discount store next door ? Is it unfair for the restaurant to impose a surcharge on any “bring your own” beverage ?

A country spent its own money to build its national roads. Is it fair for any other country to make profits from the sale of cars driven on those roads, robbing the opportunity of making and selling cars by domestic industries of that nation?

America had been nurturing its democracy, innovation and free economy to the point that now its population has an actual need on digital technology. Is it fair to deny its domestic population the opportunity to establish its own digital technology and to enjoy its profits?

3. Has America oppressed China in the current trade war?

China may have said that it is being oppressed by a stronger American economy, with “a knife held to the throat” [3]. People should not forget that currently China is oppressing ALL its neighbors except Russia. [4, 5, 6, 7].

There are many Asian people supporting President Trump (openly or quietly) in this trade war.

4. Justification for tariffs and quotas.

Tariffs and quotas are used to reduce (wasteful and inefficient) consumption of some imported products (from the point of view of the ruling government). It is the right of each nation to define what is its desirable consumption pattern.

France had been criticized for placing virtual quota on its import of Video Cassette Recorders. With the benefit of hindsight, that restriction may have saved France a lot of money.

Currently the US may consider that solar panels and washing machines should provide an opportunity for American manufacturing industry. The current tariff are designed to give American solar panel and washing machine makers a chance to establish themselves.

The tariff on washing machines also put a brake on the wasteful short life cycle assigned by Americans on their washing machines. The Green and the conservation movement are now conspicuously absent in their protest against the wasteful American habits of retiring their washing machines early.

Tariffs and quotas can also redirect consumer and industrial spending toward supporting ally and friendly nations (who are imposed zero or lower tariffs than unfriendly countries).

5. Ineffective retaliation measures by China.

China has imposed its tariffs on American soy beans. Note that soy beans are a basic staple food of Chinese people, from which they make soy-milk, tofu, bean sprouts and soy-sauce. The tariff cannot reduce soy beans consumption by Chinese people, it can only redirect their purchase preference. Can China buy soy-beans elsewhere ? If the trade war drags on for too long, American farmers may decide to stop producing soy-beans and China may be the ultimate loser for having to pay higher price to buy soy beans outside America.

Chinese tariffs on American luxury goods like hand phones, designer hand bags, airplanes, cars, etc…[5c] only turn them into items for “status symbol” and may ultimately promote their sale to Chinese super-rich people.

6. Naming winner and loser.

2018 March 30:

On Monday, Brussels launched a safeguard investigation into how it could combat surges of steel imports… from inflows of Japanese, Chinese, Turkish and Russian steel that would be diverted away from the U.S. [8]

2018 July 13:

“The S&P 500 on Friday hit a four-month high … the Nasdaq close at a record high. The S&P 500, Nasdaq and the Dow Jones Industrial Average were also tracking for their second straight week of gains.” [9]

2018 July 17:

“Since the White House announced the first tariffs — on washing machines and solar cells on Jan. 22 — the Shanghai Index of Chinese stocks is down nearly 20 percent, while the S&P 500 is off less than 1 percent… Since the end of March,..the yuan has slid nearly 7 percent, again demonstrating the impact the trade war…” [10]

As at 2018 July, America has been the winner in the current trade war.

7. Conclusions

Trade wars are bloodless and are preferable to military wars to put pressure on those countries that disregard international laws and social expectation.

a. Tariffs are not nice to advocates of free-trade but they are really useful to shape a national economy.

b. Tariffs are necessary, only their appropriate levels have to be determined.

c. Once countries enter trade war, there will be a reduction in international trade and a number of countries may enter their recession. Countries with self-sufficiency will outlast their competitors, free-loaders usually lose.

America is winning the current trade war and should prosecute its well chosen war to its end.

References:

[1]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/06/20/trade-war-tactics-part-1-predatory-pricing-and-tariffs/

[2]. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/09/23/politics/trump-trade-war-china/index.html

[3]. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2018/09/25/china-says-cant-hold-us-trade-talks-knife-throat/

[4]. https://thediplomat.com/2015/08/pentagon-denounces-excessive-maritime-claims-in-the-south-china-sea/

[5]. https://www.bloomberg.com/quicktake/territorial-disputes

[5b]. https://superforest.blog/2018/10/08/blinding-consumers-to-the-true-cost-of-soy/

[5c]. https://wentworthreport.com/2018/07/02/the-china-trade/

[6]. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-13/rothwell-south-china-sea-verdict-explained/7624120

[7]. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-11-29/south-china-sea-why-is-australia-worried-about-chinas-stance/9206998

[8]. https://www.politico.eu/article/president-donald-trump-winning-the-trade-war-for-now-steel-aluminum-tariffs/

[9]. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/13/cramer-trump-winning-china-trade-war-and-the-stock-market-confirms-it.html

[10]. https://thehill.com/opinion/finance/397447-trump-is-winning-the-trade-war-because-china-has-more-to-lose

Added after 2018, Sept 26:

[11]. https://johnib.wordpress.com/2018/09/26/south-china-sea-do-china-and-the-u-s-know-each-others-intentions/

Sixty percent of all soybeans grown worldwide are now exported to China,

[12]. https://us-issues.com/2018/10/02/china-in-water-crisis/

Conservation requires an increase in soybeen prices: rising demand for meat has driven soy production to nearly 10 times what it was 50 years ago. A full 80 percent of the world’s soybean crop is fed to livestock.

[13]. Blinding consumers to the true cost of soy?, https://superforest.blog/2018/10/08/blinding-consumers-to-the-true-cost-of-soy/

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Is America reaching its end phase ?

Is America reaching its end phase ?

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

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(Blog No. … ).

#end phase, #America, #empire, #signs

Is America reaching its end phase ?

Empires don’t last forever [1]. America empire may be now reaching its end phase.

1. Signs of American end phase.

American Congress is now in the hands of half-citizens (each congress member with dual citizenship has only half-loyalty to America) and is under tremendous pressure from lobbyists.

Congress and Supreme Court are fighting hard to take-over Presidential power: Supreme Court tries to incapacitate Executive power (as granted by the Constitution) on many cases then gives Congress the final says on those cases.

American politicians are now denouncing populism of their own President Donald Trump and of Hungarian Prime Minister Victor Orban[5] . They are actually denouncing democracy as envisaged by the US Constitution.

Propagandists are everywhere. It looks like they are denouncing their own system and are trying their best to confuse voting citizens [6].

Politicians are now forming their own class, called the politicians class which allies with the media to push their own propaganda to empower themselves and paralyze the country.

Wars are now being waged against multiple countries in all regions of the World. [7]

Tax is ever increasing (for politicians to spend and for making aimless wars), housing becomes non-affordable to many and health care becomes non-affordable. [8]

Domestic surveillance is rampant, even the Presidential candidate Trump has also been under surveillance. [9, 10, 11]

2. Signs of the end of a republic

“When the people find that they can vote themselves money that will herald the end of the republic.”― Benjamin Franklin

“A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates promising the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that a democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy followed by a dictatorship. The average age of the world’s greatest civilizations has been 200 years.”
― Alexander Fraser Tytler

 

3. Conclusion

The above list of signs follows that method used by investors to predict the much feared coming collapse of a share market.

References:

[1]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/23/unipolar-moments-never-last-more-than-a-moment-by-martin-sieff/

[2]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/05/20/countries-with-dual-citizenship-rules-may-be-internally-torn-apart/

[3]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/07/25/dual-citizenship-destroys-the-integrity-of-american-citizenship/

[4]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/05/30/guide-for-gutting-another-country/

[5]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/09/02/the-deceivers-in-democracies-beware-of-the-propagandists/

[6]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/23/disobedient-hungary-from-the-soviet-to-the-european-union-by-diana-johnstone/

[7]. https://counterinformation.wordpress.com/2018/09/19/us-war-strategists-military-defeats-and-political-success/

[8]. https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2018/may/11/trump-vows-end-rip-offs-pharmacy-counter/

[9]. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/made-by-history/wp/2017/07/18/too-much-surveillance-makes-us-less-free-it-also-makes-us-less-safe/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.b16b809d13fb

[10]. https://www.icj.org/ebulletin/usa-court-finds-domestic-surveillance-program-illegal/

[11]. https://counterinformation.wordpress.com/2018/09/19/us-war-strategists-military-defeats-and-political-success/

Added after 2018 September 23:

military-industrial-congressional complex (MICC)

[12]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/24/the-living-reality-of-military-economic-fascism-by-robert-higgs/

[13]. https://www.socialmatter.net/2017/04/17/strategy-thousand-statesmen/

[14]. https://for-god-and-country.blog/2018/09/26/the-strategy-of-a-thousand-statesmen/

TAX GRABS

[15]. https://patriotpost.us/articles/58559-americans-pay-more-in-taxes-than-on-food-and-clothing

[16]. https://papundits.wordpress.com/2018/10/01/americans-pay-more-in-taxes-than-on-food-and-clothing/

DYSFUNCTIONAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM

[17]. https://libertyblitzkrieg.com/2018/10/09/americans-are-stuck-in-abusive-relationships-with-power/

[18]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/10/09/americans-are-stuck-in-abusive-relationships-with-power-by-michael-krieger/

[19]. https://www.lewrockwell.com/2018/10/no_author/the-united-states-of-empire/

[20]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/10/20/the-united-states-of-empire-by-john-freeman/

[21]. https://blogfactory.co.uk/2018/10/22/what-with-middle-class-destroyed-50-of-all-american-workers-make-less-than-30000-a-year/

“The average age of the world’s greatest civilizations has been 200 years. These nations have progressed through this sequence:

From bondage to spiritual faith;
From spiritual faith to great courage;
From courage to liberty;
From liberty to abundance;
From abundance to selfishness;
From selfishness to apathy;
From apathy to dependence;
From dependence back into bondage.

It’s pretty obvious the West is in the lower half of the sequence right now.”

[22]. https://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2018/10/is_democracy_doomed.html

Contradictory rules in the US have hiven rise to the foĺowing conditions:

From the LA. Times: 40% of all workers in LA County (10.2 million people) are working for cash; and not paying taxes….. Over 2/3 of all births in Los Angeles County are to illegal alien Mexicans on Medi-Cal, whose births were paid for by taxpayers….. In LA County, 5.1 million people speak English; 3.9 million, speak Spanish. (There are 10.2 million people, in LA County. (All 10 of the above facts were published in the Los Angeles Times)

Less than 2% of illegal aliens are picking our crops, but 29% are on welfare….Over 70% of the United States’ annual population growth, ( and over 90% of California, Florida, and New York), results from immigration.

[23]. https://socialismisnottheanswer.wordpress.com/2018/11/16/could-this-be-true/

DIVERGENCE OF INTERESTS AND PURPOSES.

[24]. https://www.foxnews.com/us/louis-farrakhan-calls-for-separate-state-for-black-americans-says-thats-what-god-wants

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Harvest Moon festival in Melbourne (Australia) is for all.

Harvest Moon festival in Melbourne (Australia) is for all.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

#harvest Moon festival, #Brimsbank, #Melbourne, #Australia, #festival, #carnival

Harvest Moon festival in Melbourne (Australia) is for all.

The Harvest Moon festival of East Asian origin [1] now includes activities from many other cultures in Melbourne.

Figure: Stage dance.

Note that the dancers on stage are not of Asian descendants. The carnival has all Western carnival settings and children rides, complete with pony rides.

Figure: Ponies for children rides.

Reference.

[1]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/09/29/harvest-moon-festival-in-east-asian-calendar/

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Does glass fade ?

Does glass fade ?

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

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(Blog No. 1xx).

I recently bought some decorative diamond shaped glass display items made in China. Surprisingly some of them have faded after three months being in sunlight on the inside of a glass window. Checking on this strange event reveals that it is a little known fact interested by many people including glass collectors. [1]

So it is worthwhile to inform people this little-known fact that some types of beautiful color glass do fade under sunlight while some other do not.

#color glass fades under sunlight, #sunlight bleaches, #irradiation, #antique glass, #stained glass, #color glass, #glass art,

Does glass fade ?

1. Some types of color glass fade under sunlight.

Figure: A diamond shaped glass object placed on top of a prism of colorless clear glass. The diamond shaped object is now almost colorless and retains only a faint taint of its former deep orange color.

I placed some glass objects on my window sill and found some surprising results:

Some diamond shaped decorative glass objects of red, yellow, pink colors have not faded while similar objects (bought from the same shop at the same price) of orange, green colors have faded significantly.

The fading is in the bulk of the color glass, not in its surface coating (None of my glass items had any color coating).

To know why the colors fade we have to know why some types of glass have colors.

2. Why do some types of glass have colors ?

Glass makers mix compounds of transitional metals into clear glass to give it colors. The atoms of transitional metals have many unfilled outermost shells of electrons. Electrons can jump between those unfiĺled outermost shells absorbing or emitting light with the exact visible wavelengths corresponding to the differences between discrete energy levels of the shells (Those atoms act like resonating antennas placed in the beam of incoming electromagnetic waves having those wavelengths.).

The energy levels between unfilled shells and the number of electrons in those shells of the transitional elements change with the electronic configuration of their atoms. That is why a single transitional element may have different colors in its different compounds.

3. Practical effects of change of colors in the bulk of glass.

Figure: Colorful object of glass art such as this should be kept away from sunlight when its fade resistance has not been ascertained.

Effectively, some change in the bonding of transition metal atoms with its surrounding atoms is enough to change the color of the glass. Heat, sunlight and irradiation can all cause this change.

Some dishonest antique collectors subjected their antique glass items to irradiation to change their colors. The items are then sold on at higher prices as antique items with rare colors.

” Fakers and forgers are now using a new method to alter the color of antique and collectible glassware. It is called irradiation. … irradiation changes glass internally within the very atoms of the glass [2].” This precaution also applies to gemstones [3].

Prized glass items of beautiful colors are usually made by reputable glass makers from non-fading glass. Similarly gemstones are appreciated because theirs color are non-fading.

Stained glass windows should be made from only time-proven non-fading types of glass as sunlight may bleach any untested new type of color glass.

4. Conclusions

It is little -known but sunlight and irradiation can change (bleach or deepen) the colors of many glass items. Consequently only glass and gemstone items of proven non-fading types be displayed under sunlight.

As sunlight can bleach many types of color glass, stained glass windows should be made from only time-proven non-fading types of glass.

References

[1]. http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/showthread.php?t=263238

[2]. https://www.realorrepro.com/article/Irradiation-Changes-Color-of-Glass

[3]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemstone_irradiation

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Economic sabotage: Needles in Australian fruits.

Economic sabotage: Needles in Australian fruits.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

Economic sabotage: Needles in Australian fruits.

There is currently a sabotage of the food farming industry of Australia.
#needle in strawberries, #needles in apples, #needles in bananas, #Australia, #economic sabotage, #terrorism.

Economic sabotage: Needles in Australian fruits.

1. Needles in fruits.

The saboteurs inserted sewing needles into the fruits destined for wholesome consumption.

First it was discovered that some strawberries sold in punnets in Woolworth and Coles supermarkets in New South Wales and Victoria have sewing needles inserted in them. The affected batches are traced to a farm in Queensland near to Brisbane.

While the case is still unsolved there are many more similar cases which are suspected to be “copy cats”. Now there are cases of needles found in apples and bananas.

2. Terrorism ?

The Prime Minister of Australia compared the action of those involved to terrorism.[5]

The event cannot kill many people and cannot instill fear so it does not qualify as acts of terrorism. Nevertherless it is clearly an economic sabotage.

This is obvious as observed by a strawberry farmer:
” But he felt for those who were supplying the big stores, and were now being forced to dump stock… I went to the markets and the price went from say $1.50, $2 down to 50 cents, he said. ” [6]

3. Following the money.

In the current event, the losers are the strawberry (and possibly apple and banana) Farmers, Distributors and Supermarkets and indirectly the national revenue. Seasonal Tourist Fruit-pickers from Western Countries may also face tougher employment requirements.

The benefitors are PROSPECTIVE BUYERS OF Australian FARMS, Suppliers for exporters of the fruits involved, Importers of competing canned fruits. Foreign owners of fruit farms in Australia may use the sabotage as an excuse to apply for their status of PROHIBITED, FOREIGN OWNED AUTONOMOUS FARMS.

So the readers can now guess how powerful may the organizer be behind this national scale sabotage.

4. What is expected from the Government ?

The Australian government should try its best to catch the organizer of this economic sabotage.

Strawberry Farmers should be compensated for their loss of sale by the Federal government as the sabotage may be carried out by a powerful force against individual Australian farmers.

Government should strengthen the laws on ownership of Australian farms [8, 9, 10] to ensure that foreign sabotage brings no benefit to foreign saboteurs. Domestic saboteurs will get caught eventually.

Government should guide people on methods of consuming those fruits without risking harms from the current sabotage by needles.

5. What can consumers do ?

Consumers should help Australian farmers by consuming those fruits with safer processes. They may have to resort to

a/- Slicing strawberries into thin slices before serving.

b/- Slicing apples into small cubes before serving.

c/- Slicing bananas into thin slices before serving.

d/- Scanning fruits with sensitive metal detectors (Preferably installed by supermarkets at their fruit stalls for use by customers.). Currently metal detectors are only installed at wholesalers.

6. Conclusion.

It may sound far fetched but it may be possible that the sabotage may be organized by some powerful (and possibly foreign) force desiring to weaken Australia and its strategic farmers (to acquire their farms ?).

References:

[1]. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/17/world/australia/strawberry-needle-recall.html

[2]. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-45543764

[3]. http://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2018-09-14/strawberries-new-threat-revealed-queensland-health/10246258?pfmredir=sm

[4]. http://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2018-09-13/strawberry-recall-needle-found-in-fruit/10240956?pfmredir=sm

[5]. http://hunterinfo.in/2018/09/19/terrorism-australia-prime-minister-on-needles-found-in-strawberries/

[6]. http://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2018-09-17/wa-drawn-into-strawberry-contamination-scare/10254746?pfmredir=sm

[7]. https://johnib.wordpress.com/2018/09/19/australia-strawberry-sabotage-akin-to-terrorism/

[8]. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/feb/11/foreign-investors-will-face-new-rules-to-buy-australian-agricultural-land

[9]. http://firb.gov.au/

[10]. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1314/ForeignInvest

Added after 2018 Sep 23:

The Australian scare over needles found in strawberries has spread to New Zealand after needles were found in a punnet of the fruit in an Auckland supermarket… There have been over 100 reports of needles being found in supermarket fruit in Australia.

[11]. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-45617660

[12]. https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/981291/south-china-sea-dispute-australia-to-anger-china-with-surveillance-drones-beijing

[13]. https://www.businessinsider.com.au/australia-and-china-in-angry-war-of-words-over-foreign-influence-2017-12?r=US&IR=T

[14]. http://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-23/china-wants-australian-concrete-actions-to-improve-ties/9789014?pfmredir=sm

[15]. https://mobile.abc.net.au/news/2018-10-20/three-reasons-needles-could-have-ended-up-in-strawberries/10396822?pfmredir=sm

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Paying immigrants to go back home makes sense.

Paying immigrants to go back home makes sense.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

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(Blog No. … ).

#pay to go, #rejected asylum seeker, #non-integrating immigrant, #cost

Paying immigrants to go back home makes sense.

This blog suggest that it both looks good and makes economic sense to pay non-integrating immigrants to go back to their homelands.

Germany and many EU countries gave the wrong signals leading to many people leaving their homelands in Africa and Middle East to go there for easier lives. This whole thing has turned upside down the lives of many, native people and immigrants, and it is time for the leadership of EU to admit the mistakes.

To partially undo the damage caused by the mistakes of many EU countries, it may be cheapest for them to pay the immigrants to go back to their homelands.

1. Germany had paid guest workers to go home previously.

“Until very recently, Germany was not perceived as a country of immigration (“kein Einwanderungsland”) by both the majority of its political leaders and the majority of its population. When the country’s political leaders realized that many of the persons from certain countries living in Germany were jobless, some calculations were done and according to those calculations, paying unemployed foreigners for leaving the country was cheaper in the long run than paying unemployment benefits. A “Gesetz zur Förderung der Rückkehrbereitsschaft” (“law to advance the willingness to return home”) was passed. The government started paying jobless people from a number of countries, such as Turks, Moroccans and Tunisians, a so-called Rückkehrprämie (“repatriation grant”) or Rückkehrhilfe (“repatriation help”) if they returned home. A person returning home received 10,500 Deutsche Mark and an additional 1,500 Deutsche Mark for his spouse and also 1,500 Deutsche Mark for each of his children if they returned to the country of his origin.

The agreement with Turkey ended in 1973 but few workers returned because there were few good jobs in Turkey. Instead they brought in wives and family members and settled in ethnic enclaves.

In 2013 it was revealed that ex-chancellor Helmut Kohl had plans to halve the Turkish population of Germany in the 1980s.

By 2010 there were about 4 million people of Turkish descent in Germany. The generation born in Germany attended German schools, but some had a poor command of either German or Turkish, and thus had either low-skilled jobs or were unemployed. Most are Muslims and are presently reluctant to become German citizens.” [1]

2. It costs more to keep non-integrating immigrants.

“the overall debt in Germany stands at €6.2 trillion, equivalent to more than £5trillion.

…But Mr Raffelhüschen claims the tables could soon turn as Germany begins to take into account the cost of the refugee wave of 2015.

He states the long term costs of the original crisis totals around €878 billion, which threatens to soar up to €1.5trilllion depending on how well the “second generation” fits in with life in Germany.” [2]

“The costs of the wave of asylum seekers arriving in Sweden due to the refugee crisis will be much greater than previously expected, forcing the government to earmark more money in the coming years…Sweden’s Finance Minister Magdalena Andersson on Wednesday (13 April) presented the centre-left government’s 2016 spring budget, which revealed that the Scandinavian country expects costs related to migration, such as providing accommodation and offering job training, will be close to 56 billion Swedish crowns (€6.1 billion) per year until 2020….The government had previously forecast 15 billion Swedish crowns (€1.6 billion) annually.” [3]

The cost is often shared between central government and regional governments. [4]

3. It does not look good and it costs more to forcibly return immigrants.

The main cause of the problem is due to the “offer” by Germany to accept all immigrants who can come and now many of those immigrants are actually stuck in sticky situations.

“An EUobserver probe of some 100 joint return flights coordinated by the EU’s border agency, Frontex, has revealed some startling facts… The researched cases date from the start of 2015 to October 2016, with the numbers indicating huge costs for returning the thousands of migrants residing in European countries… It has been calculated that, on average, the agency has spent around €5,800 for every individual deported back to their country of origin. Over 4,700 have left under the scheme”. [5]

4. It makes sense to offer money to immigrants to go home.

This is not the first time Germany has asked guest workers come to build the country but had no plan for them to become part of the country. [6,7]

” … for many years Germans assumed the “guest workers” would return home one day. The country’s refusal to face up to the reality and the lack of a proper immigration policy led to today’s integration problems. “ [8]

” The country… now wants to give rejected asylum-seekers a one-time payment of $3,570 to go home. “ [9]

“Germany is willing to pay Muslim invaders who failed to receive asylum €3,000 if they leave the country and return home to their countries of origin by March 2018. “ [10]

“Germany learns how to send back migrants: Pay them” [11]

Germany will spend €150 million over three years to encourage migrants to return to their countries of origin, Development Minister Gerd Müller told local media ” [12]

5. Similar policies apply all over EU

Denmark to pay immigrants £12,000 to go home if they ‘can’t or won’t’ assimilate” [13]

Refugee seekers are being offered thousands of dollars plus free flights back home if they voluntary leave the country….A family with two children is eligible for $9,300 plus free flights home, around 900 refugees have already accepted Norway’s offer. ” [14]

Paris will provide each family with a nest egg of €6,000 ($8,000) for when they go back to their country of origin. A similar scheme, which was introduced in 2005 and 2006, was taken up by around 3,000 families. ” [15]

6. Conclusion

The leaders of EU countries should now admit their mistakes and speedily offer cash as compensation for misinformed immigrants to go home.

References:

[1]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastarbeiter

[2]. https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/691638/Germany-migrant-crisis-immigration-economy-trillion-pounds

[3]. https://www.euractiv.com/section/global-europe/news/sweden-sees-costs-of-migration-crisis-almost-quadruple/

[4]. https://www.oecd.org/els/mig/migration-policy-debates-13.pdf

[5]. https://euobserver.com/migration/137720

[6]. https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2017-08-18/germany-bets-on-second-time-lucky-with-migrant-workers

[7]. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/31/world/europe/turks-recall-german-guest-worker-program.html

[8]. http://m.spiegel.de/international/germany/turkish-immigration-to-germany-a-sorry-history-of-self-deception-and-wasted-opportunities-a-716067.html, 9/7/2010

[9]. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/12/04/germany-offers-money-for-migrants-who-go-back-home.html

[10]. https://grumpyelder.com/2017/12/04/honeymoon-over-germany-will-pay-migrants-e3000-to-go-home/, 2017/12/04.

[11]. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/germany-learns-how-to-send-back-migrants–pay-them/2016/03/19/0685dc96-e552-11e5-a9ce-681055c7a05f_story.html?utm_term=.54b2be5c3524, March 19, 2016

[12]. https://www.politico.eu/article/germany-to-pay-for-migrants-to-go-home-gerd-muller/, 12/9/2016.

[13]. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1226698/Denmark-pay-immigrants-12-000-home-wont-assimilate.html, 11 Nov 2009

[14]. https://www.numbersusa.com/news/norway-paying-refugees-go-back-home, Dec 8th 2015

[15]. http://m.spiegel.de/international/europe/a-new-broom-in-paris-france-to-pay-immigrants-to-return-home-a-484716.html, Thursday, 5/24/2007

Added after 2018, Sept 30:

[16]. https://thevoiceofnsreason.wordpress.com/2018/09/29/refugee-program-costs-us-taxpayers-125-billion-over-ten-years-refugee-resettlement-watch/
[16]. https://vikinglifeblog.wordpress.com/2018/09/30/refugee-program-costs-us-taxpayers-125-billion-over-ten-years-refugee-resettlement-watch/

[17]. https://vikinglifeblog.wordpress.com/2018/12/05/census-63-of-illegal-immigrants-on-welfare-over-60-of-legal-hispanics-as-well/

[18]. https://centinel2012.com/2019/01/16/merkel-offering-to-pay-one-years-living-expenses-if-refugees-leave-europe/

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Finding North from unclear sky around September.

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. 1xx).

#find North, #finding North, #direction, #by stars, #Altair, #Fomalhaut, #September, #unclear sky,

Finding North from unclear sky around September.

Around September there are some bright stars shining the whole night. They include Deneb close to the Celestial North pole and Fomalhaut in the Southern sky. These stars can be used to locate the Celestial poles in the sky and subsequently the terrestrial principal directions.

1. Celestial poles and terrestrial directions.

Sun on Celestial Sphere

Figure: The Sun, the Moon and the stars are attached to a Celestial sphere which encloses the Earth like a giant rotating cage.

To an Earth bound observer, the Earth appears to be enclosed by a large rotating spherical shell called the Celestial Sphere with all stars attached to it. This shell rotates around the Earth nearly one revolution every 24 hous. This rotation leaves unmoved only 2 points on the shell. They are called the Northern and Southern Celestial poles of the Celestial Sphere.

If an observer can locate one Celestial pole then the projection to the ground of the line from him to the pole will be along his terrestrial North South direction.

2. Locating the Northern Celestial Pole in Northern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Northern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its September marking on its rim pointing towards the ground as illustrated here.
An observer has to align the polar map with marking for September on the rim (at 6 o’clock position) pointing downward. An observer in Northern latitude above 30 degrees will see the rotation of bright stars Vega, Deneb [1], Cassiopeia constellation, bright star Capella then Big Dipper constellations in that order.

Cassiopeia goes highest around 01am.

The bisector of the M shaped Cassiopeia goes through the Northern Celestial pole. The Northern Celestial pole is almost 30 degree below Cassiopeia.

Sky map Northern 3/4 sphere

Figure 2: Polar Inversion map of Northern Celestial 3/4 sphere.

3. Locating the Southern Celestial pole in Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Polar Inversion map for the Southern Celestial hemisphere. The map should be read with its September marking on its rim pointing towards the ground as illustrated here.

Sky map Southern 3/4 sphere

Figure: Polar Inversion map of Southern Celestial 3/4 sphere.

An observer has to align the polar map with marking for September on the rim pointing downward as illustrated here. An observer in Southern hemisphere or on the tropical zone would see Achernar [1] rising highest around 2am. Southern Celestial pole is the midpoint of Achernar and the two Pointers and is about 30 degree from Achernar.

 

4. Locating the Celestial poles from tropical stars.

A observer in the tropic should already know the two brightest stars Scorpius Antares (at the heart) and Scorpius Shaula (at the stinger end) of the Scorpius [1]. The straight line from Antares to Shaula goes through the bright star Fomalhaut which is of 60 degree distances from both Scorpius Shaula and Altair [1] which is a star of July and is close to the Celestial equator.

Figure 2: The Mercator map of the sky for inhabitants of Tropical Zone. North direction is on its top. 24hr of R.A. is near the center and R.A. increases towards the left (East) of the map. The map is to be read South side up in the Southern hemisphere.

Figure: Fomalhaut and its nearby stars.

The bisector of the angle Shaula, Altair, Fomalhaut points to the Southern Celestial pole.

Southern Celestial pole is is of 90 degree distance from Altair and of equal 60 degree from both Scorpius Shaula and Fomalhaut.

5. Visibility of the stars.

Scorpius Altairs and Scorpius Shaula are stars of June that set close to midnight when viewed from tropical zone. Altair is a star of July that sets close to 02 am. Fomalhaut is visible for nearly the whole night in September.

References.

[1]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around July, posted on 2018, May 13.

[2]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky in April, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around April, posted on 2018, April 12.

[3]. tonytran2015, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North from unclear sky around New Year, posted on 2018, April 05.

[4]. tonytran2015, Finding North and time by stars, survivaltricks.wordpress.com, Finding North and time by stars, posted on August 28, 2015

[5]. , posted on

[6]. The Orion constellation., posted December 26, 2016

[7].The Scorpius constellation., posted January 8, 2017

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Real life lessons on national economics.

Real life lessons on national economics.

by tonytran2015 (Melbourne, Australia).

Click here for a full, up to date ORIGINAL ARTICLE and to help fighting the stealing of readers’ traffic.

(Blog No. … ).

The current time is quite interesting as it allows the testing of many economic theories. After that, some theories will gain credential while others may get forgotten.

#inflation, #economy, #Venezuela, #Argentina, #Turkey, #dollar,#currency #yuan, #gold based, #oil based

Real life lessons on national economics.

1. Venezuela and its wealth from oil.

Venezuela was a wealthy country living from its sale of oil. The 1998 Venezuelan government by Hugo Chavez then played with the game of commanding the economy and sent its economy crashing and then into hyperinflation.[1]

“Chavez used the abundant income stream to go on a spending spree as he instituted a large number of entitlement programs using the oil revenues. A strike in 2003 interrupted Chavez’s plans and caused the GDP to crash by 27 percent in just four months. Chavez began nationalizing industries and instituting price controls, which was the beginning on Venezuela’s inflationary spiral as Venezuelans developed a reliance on their government for products and services.” [2]

Once hyperinflation has set in, people would avoid using the rapidly depreciating fiat money, and bartering is the only mean for survival.[3, 4]

“If somebody has lots of one thing and too little of another, an arrangement can be made. I’ve exchanged corn meal for rice with friends from high school, eggs for cooking oil with my sister-in-law. Street vendors barter, too, taking, say, a kilo of sugar as payment for one of flour. There are Facebook pages and chat-room groups devoted to the swap-ability of everything from toothpaste to baby formula.” [5]

This should be a lesson to leftists everywhere [6] that even a once rich economy of Venezuela cannot endure the incessant waste of scare resources to FEEL GOOD on everything politicians can dream of.

2. Argentina with its policy of excessive protection for domestic industries.

In its pursue of industrial self-sufficiency the government had given excessive protection to domestic industries turning them into non-competitive. This caused a shortfall in the productivity and tax contribution. Subsequently the government had to rely on debt or inflation or both. These are the root cause of its current inflation:

” Successive governments from the 1930s to the 1970s pursued a strategy of import substitution to achieve industrial self-sufficiency, ”
“The era of import substitution ended in 1976, but at the same time growing government spending, large wage increases and inefficient production created a chronic inflation that rose through the 1980s… also contributed to the huge foreign debt by the late 1980s, which became equivalent to three-fourths of the GNP” [7]

Import substitution and industrial self-sufficiency are quite respectable aims for its economic policy. Argentinian economy could have benefited from them even if locally produced substitutions carried higher prices than available imports. However this approach always carry with it the danger of over-pampering domestic industries. The people in charge of domestic industries may decide to take a free ride to enrich themselves by supplying the domestic industries with obsolete or substandard production methods (for kick backs) rather than with best methods for the nation. [8, 9, 10]

When the cronies are in control, they borrow like mad to build everything so that they can get a cut (kick back) on every project. After that the country will be left with mountain of debts and prestigious but substandard or even useless projects [11, 15]. Cronyism is the cause for the backwardness of socialist countries.

“But just after Argentina settled with the “holdouts” in 2016 on defaulted dollar-bonds dating from its last default, it sold new foreign-currency bonds, in all kinds of issuances, including in June last year $2.75 billion of 100-year bonds at a yield of 7.9% and in January this year $9 billion of bonds, composed of five-year bonds at a yield of 4.625%, 10-year bonds at a yield of 6%, and 30-year bonds at a yield of 7%.”[16]

“ET: This shows that the government’s policy is an abject failure: with a peso that devalued fast; with the interest rate set at a high 40% by the Argentine Republic’s Central Bank; with the $ 8 billion reduction in international reserves that keep declining. And with a debt service that has increased by 100% compared to 2017. Faced with a balance sheet of such a nature, undoubtedly it is a total failure. Macri claimed that a high growth level and a viable debt would be ensured by paying the debt – between end-2015 and early-2016 – and by compensating the vulture funds, in keeping with Judge Thomas Griesa’s verdict. He knelt before the vulture funds (see: [17]). But the facts confirm that this plan did not work. Debt rose at a whirling pace and it’s startling to see how fast it snowballed. As a result, it became impossible to convince the creditors that Argentina could repay its debt in the future.” [18]

“Argentina’s currency is in free fall… The slump threatens to spread havoc through the $640 billion economy, rupturing supply chains for businesses and straining the finances of households.” [19]

Australia and Argentina were economically very similar prior to 1970. They then followed different paths from 1980: Senator Button of Keating’s government dismantled the over-protection for the car industry in Australia. That brought forward a wave of modernization. Currently Australia is in much better shape than Argentina [20, 21].

3. Turkish lira versus the US dollar.

Monetary policy is typically implemented by a central bank, while fiscal policy decisions are set by the national government. However, both monetary and fiscal policy may be used to influence the performance of the economy in the short run.

” It helps quantify the effects of the recent economic chaos in Turkey. Turkey’s economic future remains uncertain, but the reality is that their currency has devalued as a result of large fiscal deficits and heavy borrowing used to make up the revenue shortfall. Inflation is not the cause of the problem; it is a symptom. The cause is the dramatic increase in the supply of lira designed to solve the poor fiscal condition.”[22]

Turkey is an interesting case. The country is a bridge between Western countries and Middle East countries and is not far from Russia. That country relied on its membership in NATO to shoot down a stray Russian fighter jet ! It then mended its bad relation with Russia and went on to antagonize USA with its threat of re-polarizing its foreign policy.

Although Russia now allows Russians to have holidays in Turkey and China is courting it with the OBOR plan (“One Belt One Road” or rather “Once Borrowed Only Regret”? [23]), Turkey’s currency lira is now in trouble partially due to US tariffs imposed on Turkey’s goods.

4. US dollars are being pushed back into their national territory by China, Russia and the Silk Road Alliance.

US dollars are only fiat money [24] after Nixon’s removal of their ex-changeability for gold. They are only useful to people who have to pay tax to and pay for service from the American government. They are absolutely useless to foreigners who don’t have to pay tax to or pay for service from the American government. Having US dollars as a medium for international trade is a privilege to USA: There are more holders of that currency, the pool of dollars in circulation is therefore vast. That allows American government to quietly “tax” all its currency holders, domestic and international, through inflation [25].

American exploitation of this privilege position [26] with its imposition of banking sanctions against many countries has led to the (irreversible ?) push for using gold or oil as exchange medium in international trade [27, 28, 29, 30].

5. Conclusions

This is an interesting time for studying economics. Most theories can be tested and sorted out during this short time. Blind belief in fiat currency is now questioned everywhere.

The leaders of nations have to learn now that there is always a reaction to every of their actions.

References

[1]. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6032367/Venezuela-price-chaos-gasoline-costs-just-one-Bolivar-egg-costs-200-000-times-much.html

[2]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/05/paper-money-eventually-returns-to-its-intrinsic-value-zero-by-alex-deluce/

[3]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2016/12/05/preparing-for-%e2%80%8bcashless-trading/

[4]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/02/20/cashless-bartering-for-survival/

[5]. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-04/in-caracus-venezuela-a-haircut-costs-five-bananas-and-two-eggs

[6]. https://abackwoodsconservative.wordpress.com/2018/09/09/obama-claims-the-current-economy-as-his-and-yet/

[7]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_Argentina

[8]. http://nomadcapitalist.com/2016/05/30/the-5-worst-countries-for-crony-capitalism/

[9]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crony-capitalism_index

[10]. https://www.heritage.org/international-economies/report/cronyism-and-corruption-are-killing-economic-freedom-argentina

[11]. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-31639768

[12]. https://www.afr.com/news/world/south-america/china-on-the-march-in-latin-america-with-new-space-station-in-argentina-20180730-h13c95

[13]. https://uk.reuters.com/article/argentina-china-idUKL2N0PT0IK20140718

[14]. https://www.ft.com/content/2d264e78-8cf9-11e5-a549-b89a1dfede9b

[15]. https://www.dw.com/en/chinese-loans-helping-latin-america-amid-oil-price-slump/a-18284605

[16]. https://www.businessinsider.com/the-imf-could-push-argentina-from-a-currency-crisis-into-a-debt-crisis-2018-5/?r=AU&IR=T

[17]. http://www.cadtm.org/Reject-the-Imminent-Agreement-with

[18]. http://www.cadtm.org/The-IMF-is-back-in-Argentina-an-economic-and-social-crisis-even-more-serious

[19]. https://us-issues.com/2018/09/04/argentina-currency-crisis-pain-is-spreading/

[20]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Australia

[21]. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Argentina

[22]. https://straightlinelogic.com/2018/09/06/what-turkey-can-teach-us-about-gold-by-michael-lebowitz/

[23]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2018/06/17/expansion-by-predatory-loans/

[24]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/your-fiat-money-part-2/

[25]. https://survivaltricks.wordpress.com/2017/03/29/inflation-is-vicious-to-fiat-money-users/

[26]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exorbitant_privilege

[27]. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-dollar-analysis/dollar-decline-rekindles-reserve-currency-worries-idUSKCN1GJ2XW

[28]. https://www.forbes.com/sites/nathanlewis/2016/05/05/china-is-laying-the-foundation-for-the-next-world-gold-standard-system/#305670a7689e

[29]. https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-03-30/yuan-oil-futures-contract-gold

[30]. https://www.rt.com/business/438162-us-dollar-crash-jim-rogers/

Added after 2018 Oct 10:

Dedolarization
[31]. http://www.alt-market.com/articles/3544-the-world-is-quietly-decoupling-from-the-us–and-no-one-is-paying-attention

[32]. https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2018/10/26/578126/Russia-China-Swift-Alternative

[33]. https://www.rt.com/business/442410-gold-demand-up-dollar/

[34]. https://socioecohistory.wordpress.com/2018/10/27/gold-demand-up-42-as-countries-abandon-us-dollar-in-expectation-of-geopolitical-shift/

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